Allergic Rhinitis seasonal/intermittent nasal mucosal inflammation with nasal
discharge and congestion, itching and sneezing.
Allergic Conjuctivitis itching, redness and irritation of the conjunctiva from an
allergen, often bilateral.
Inflammation and Healing III: Would Healing
Definition of Healing
1. Resolution restoration to pre-injury state.
2. Regeneration replacement of lost cells by cells of the same type.
3. Repair replacement of lost cells by fibrosis.
Factors of Resolution
Effect of Injury on Tissues
1. Principle Events in Ischemic Cell Injury
a. Compromised ATP synthesis inhibition of ox-phos.
b. Cell swelling accumulation of Na and water resulting in hydropic
change. Influx of Ca due to inactive ATP dependent
Intro to Pathology
Pathology The scientific study of the causes and effects of disease.
Effects on function and structure
Clinicopathologic Correlate (CPC) linking the changes in cells, tissues and organs to
Effect of Injury on Tissues II
a. Physiological Stimuli
a.i. Tissue modeling during embryogenesis.
a.ii. Deletion of non-tolerant T, B cell clones.
a.iii. Termination of inflammation response.
a.iv. Involution of hormone dependent
Inflammation and Healing I: Acute Inflammation
Loss of function
Vascular Events of Inflammation
1. Brief vasoconstriction of arterioles.
2. Vasodilation cause hyperemia.
3. Increase permeability cause exudate
Inflammation and Healing II: Chronic Inflammation
Difference Between Chronic and Acute Inflammation
Absence of cardinal signs.
Lack of uniformity in expression.
Have macrophages and lymphocytes.
Fibrosis and angiogenesis.
Arises from somatic mesoderm.
Myoblasts myotubes myofibers
i. The myofiber is the basic cellular unit.
ii. Each myofiber is cylindrical, non-branching, multinucleate
The Peripheral Nervous System
20% of energy consumed by the nervous system.
Components of the Nervous System
Development and Neural Crest
The neural plate (neuroectoderm) retains epithelial characteristics throughout life.
Neural tube b
Intro to Tissues
Multinucleated cells skeletal, placental; incapable of cell division.
Mature red blood cells do not have a nucleus.
Can be difficult to differentiate because of surrounding extracellular ma
Connective Tissue II
A dense connective tissue.
Chondrocytes are the major cell type.
Matrix of collage Type I, II or elastic fibers.
Grow by interstitial and appositional growth.
Interstitial secretion of new cartilage matrix by the divisi
Cell-Cell and Cell-Matrix Interactions
Single cell cultures in vitro have the ability to reassemble into original organs
based on difference in cell adhesion.
Types of Cell Junctions
Tight Junctions (occulding juctions) prevent small molecules from
Drug Absorption and Distribution and Elimination
Solubility of ionized vs nonionized form
Local conditions (pH, surface area, blood flow)
Modes of Dr
Multiple Dosing and Drug Accumulation
Multiple Dosing Schemes
Multiple dose administration is given to produce a mean effective concentration
(MEC) in plasma.
Drug accumulation is the result of total amount of drugs that is accumulated until
Intractable infections in first 6 months of life.
Fever, bloody diarrhea, thrush
Lymphopenia loss of T cells.
Remaining T cells dont prliferate normally.
Can be B-, NK- or Both.
Four Most Common Gene Def
Common Variable Immunodeficiency
Multiple problems most likely derive from a single cause.
Chronic granulomatous disease is the only primary immunodeficiency disorder
that deals with innate immune system.
CVID umbrella term for many different primary immu
Inhibit PLA2 by stimulating lipocontin production.
Can also suppress Cox2 expression.
Non-Selective Cox1 and 2 inhibitors
Irreversible acetylation of Cox1 and 2
Lead to increased leukotrienes by shunting
Autacoids II: Biogenic Amines
a. Distribution main storage in mast cells.
b. Biosynthesis and Metabolism
b.i. Histidine converted to histamine by histidine decarboxylase.
b.ii. Histamine is metabolized by histamine-N-methyl t
Act near site of synthesis
Have major roles in inflammation and allergic reactions.
Products of Cyclooxygenases
Thromboxane A2 (TXA2)
Products of Lipoxygenases
Definition made from C20 fatty acids (arachidonic acid)
Made in response to extracellular stimuli.
Made from membrane lipids in all tissues except RBC.
Bind to cell surface receptors and stimulate signal t
Role of Biotransformation
To inactivate and detox drugs.
Lipophilic drugs filtered through the glomerulus are largely reabsorbed back into
the circulation but water soluble drugs are excreted.
Enzmes convert prodrug to active drug.
Therapy for Pesticide and Drug Poisoning
Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons - Dioxin
d. Industrial chemicals
2. General Properties
b. Lipophilic, stored in body
c. Cross blood-brain b
The study of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
The effect of the body on the drug.
Drug concentration in blood is only one variable in patients response to drugs.
Average doses are not adequ
Antidotes for Toxic Agents
Examples of Toxins
1. Air pollutants (CO)
2. Solvents (cyanide and methanol)
3. Heavy metals (iron and lead)
1. Carbon Dioxide
a.i. Most common cause of poisoning
a.ii. By product of combustion of organ
Blood is composed for formed elements and plasma.
Three classes of formed elements: erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes
constitute 45% of blood volume.
Leukocytes can be divided into 5 types: neutrophils, eosinophils, basop
Connective tissue provides structural support and bind together cells, organs, and
Exist as a heterogeneous spectrum from watery to ridgid.
A dynamic tissue with stem cells for repair.
1. Cells originate from t
Intro to Immune System
Categories of Pathogens
Most microbes are harmless and even beneficial.
The Human Genome Project characterized what microorganisms are associated with
healthy and diseased humans and how
Overview of Lymphatic System
Related to the immune system
Function of Lymphatics
1. Normal capillary function and digestive absorption of fat.
2. Produce, maintain, and distribute lymphocytes and antibodies.
3. Significant factor
1. Pathway 1
a. Oxygenated blood from the placenta and deoxygentated blood from the
lower half of the fetus enter IVC and passes from the right atrium to the
left atrium via foramen ovale.
2. Pathway 2
a. Deoxygenated blood