Notes week 7
Antigens that are transported by dendritic cells to lymph nodes are recognized by naive T
lymphocytes that recirculate through these lymph nodes.
The T cells are activated to differentiate into effector and memory cells, which may
Innate immune system recognizes microbes
to mount the first defense against an infection.
In addition to this, the innate immune response has an important
warning function to alert the adaptive immune system.
Innate immune response generates molecu
Components of Innate Immunity
First to respond to infection by bacteria or fungi
Ingest microbes in circulation
Enter extra-vascular tissue at site of infection, where they ingest
microbes and die
>are most abundant leukocytes in the bl
Innate Immunity: also called NATURAL or NATIVE immunity
Always Present, Ready to Recognize and Eliminate
Infectious agents: Bacteria, Viruses & Fungi
Innate Immunity is the first line of defense against microbes.
It is a specifi
Notes week 5
High levels of IgM but almost no IgG and IgA
No germinal centers
Gene is on X chromosome
Patients are usually male
Two circulatory systems: Blood and lymphatics
Blood with cells is pumped round the body
Lymphatics drain extracellular f
Notes week 6
Mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of at least 12 germline-encoded,
evolutionarily conserved membrane proteins that are critical in the activation of
The immune function of Toll was first identified on the ba
Week 9 notes
Some bacteria always cause disease
IE Neisseria gonorrhoeae, plasmodium spp.(malaria)
Some bacteria are present without causing an infection
However, under conditions that enhance the susceptibilit
Week 8 notes
T cell activation must be sustained for a period of hours to program the T cells for
subsequent expansion and differentiation into effector cells.
Shortest period to initiate this program in nave CD8 T cells is 2.5 hrs.
In nave CD4 T cells is
Kevin nash intd 522 infection and host responses
Life history &Pathogenesis
Innate & acquired immunity
*Tuberculosis is a disease of poverty