Acoustic Plane Waves
Experiment 8
Julian Weathersby
Course: AME341 Lab Date: Tuesday, November 27, 2007 Lab Partners: Joe Lubinski
Julian Weathersby
Acoustic Plane Waves
Abstract
Acoustic plane waves are theoretical which can make them complicate
Exp#8: Acoustic Plane Waves
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Exp#8: Acoustic Plane Waves
1. Properties of acoustic plane waves Acoustic waves are low amplitude pressure waves that propagate through a fluid according to the balance between inertia and compressibility. They are governed
Exp#5: OpAmps
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Exp#5: Measurements Of The LM741 Amplitude Response
1. Objective The opamp is a general purpose instrument that finds application in many practical electronic circuits. The LM741 is a very common implementation and has properties that a
Exp#2: Basic Instrumentation
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Exp#2: Standalone and ComputerBased Instruments
1. Introduction The output of most transducers is an electrical signal. Transmitting modulated electrical voltages down conducting wires is a robust and inexpensive way to com
Exp#5: Measurements Of The LM741 Amplitude Response
1. Objective The opamp is a general purpose instrument that finds application in many practical electronic circuits. The LM741 is a very common implementation and has properties that are quite char
Measuring Amplitude Response
Julian Weathersby
Course: AME341 Lab Date: Tuesday, October 16, 2007 Lab Partner: Jeremiah Givens
Julian Weathersby
Measuring Amplitude Response
Introduction
An opamp, also known as an operational amplifier, is a high
4.5 Laplace Transforms
Elements of Linear Circuit Theory
Passive circuits no external energy supply Active circuits needs to be "powered up" to work, e.g. opamps Laplace Transforms : if f(t), then f ( t ) = 0 f (t )e st dt
and f ( t ) = F ( s ) , wher
5.1 Basic Definitions
1st Order Systems
Governing equations
Governing equation is an ordinary differential eqn. (ODE) with only 1st order derivatives Consider Linear Eqn.:
dx + x = F (t ) dt
= constant & positive t = independent variable, e.g. time
Gen
5.2 Response to TimeVarying Functions
Response of 1st Order Systems to F(t)
Governing equation
dx + x = F (t ) dt
General solution
x=e
 t
cfw_
C + e F (t ).dt
t
x
Particular Solutions 1. F(t) = K
K t
x = K + Ce

t
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General case: step function
x(t) 1
5.3 Application I: RC Filters
Low and High Pass filters as 1st Order Systems
R i2 C eo
ei
i1
Low Pass filter
i1 = i2
ei  eo de =C o R dt
RC deo + eo = ei dt
Low pass filter is a 1st order system!
Time constant = RC.
Expect amplitude and phase response to
5.4 Application II: Operational Amplifiers
OpenLoop Configuration
Power supply
+
Inverting input eb


Gain = A
e out Output Input for null adjustments
Noninverting input
ea
+
Normally omit the power supply and null adjustment inputs
Characteristics of
6.1 Principles: How to build a Computer
Introduction, or, Brief Statement of the Very Obvious
Digital electronic circuits have become increasingly widespread, due at least in part, to advantages in noise reduction and the ease with which large, complex, b
6.2 Useful Properties of Digital Circuits
What's so special about Digital Circuits?
Digital electronics, we are breathlessly informed (almost daily, it seems) are about to take over our world, or are already doing so, or have done already. Why is this? Th
4.4 Mathematical Representation of Signals
Consider the following waveform:
e(t ) = E cos( t + )
e(t)
t
=
t
= t.
Note the sign convention where a negative phase difference is a positive time difference. (Things that come later have phase < 0) Here's a d
4.3 Kirchhoffs Laws
Kirchhoff developed some useful rules for the analysis of resistive circuits. These are known as Kirchhoffs Junction Law (think of current), and Kirchhoffs Loop Law (think of voltage). Consider first the circuit shown below. Given the
4.2 Circuits Elements
The most common circuit elements are the: Resistor
Capacitor
Inductor
Diode
and they represent the building blocks of most electronic circuits.
Resistance (R)
The electrical resistance of a conductor is defined by:
R=
V I
where I is
Reportwriting for AME341
Part I. How to Improve
Whats so hard?
Confused writing comes from confused thinking Concentrate on clarity of basic concepts
Whats different about Mechoptronics?
Usual pattern: do homework on very precisely formulated problem
4.1 Basic Definitions
The basic basics Or What parts of EE do we need to know? There are 2 principal branches of EE: 1. Power Heating Lighting Motors 2. Signal Instrumentation Communications Control systems Computation
Voltage & current
These are commonly
6.3 Analog to Digital Conversion
How to go from analog to digital and back again, or, how does your CD player work?
Analog to Digital Conversion At the scale of interest for most engineering applications, and certainly for those encountered in this course
6.4 Properties of Discrete Signals
Elementary, but important and special properties of discrete signals that represent real numbers
Accuracy The accuracy of the approximation of a discretised signal will depend on both the sampling interval (time resoluti
Uncertainty Analysis II
Uncertainty of functions of more than one variable
Propagation of uncertainties
If y is a real, continuous function of n independent variables,
y = f ( x1 , x2 ,., xn )
then given small increments, x1, x2, xn, y, the change in valu