Chapter 7B Tangential and Centripetal Acceleration
An object is accelerating whenever its velocity is changing. Velocity is a vector quantity, so it has a magnitude and a direction.
An object is undergoing tangential acceleration (at) if the magnit
Chapters 10B and 11A The Ideal Gas Law
The ideal gas law relates the absolute pressure, volume, and absolute (Kelvin) temperature of a fixed amount of gas: PV = nRT
n = number of moles of gas R = gas constant, 8.31 J/(mole K)
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Chapters 10B and 11A
Chapter 10A Temperature and Heat
All matter has thermal (or internal) energy due to molecular motion. An object's temperature is directly related to the intensity of its molecular motion.
Thermal energy "flows" from one object to another if the objec
Chapter 11B Thermal Energy and Temperature
If we slowly add thermal energy to a substance, two things will happen:
Its temperature will increase.
At certain temperatures it will change phase (melt or vaporize). Its temperature will remain constant
Chapter 3B Motion in Two Dimensions
time = ti position = ri
displacement r = rf - ri
time = tf position = rf
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Chapter 3B Motion in Two Dimensions
time = ti position = ri instantaneous velocity = v
average velocity
v av
r t
instantaneous velo
Chapter 14A
Sound
Sound waves are longitudinal pressure waves created by a vibrating object. Some medium must be present. Sound will not travel through a vacuum.
There is no bulk movement of the medium.
Sound waves travel faster in solids than in
Chapter 2B Equations of Motion
We want to define the relationships between displacement, velocity, acceleration and time. We have used 12 different symbols so far:
xi , xf , x, ti , t f , t, v , vi , v f , v, a , a
We need to simplify this!
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Cha
Chapter 8B Linear and Rotational Motion
x
displacement
velocity
v a
v
x
1 2
acceleration
at
vt
1 2
v0
v0
equations of motion
1 2
0
0
t
t
1 2 1 2
x
x
2
v0t
vt
at
at
2 0
t
t t
2
2
1 2
2
2
t
2 0
v
v
2 0
2a x
2
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Chapter 8B Linear
Chapter 8A Linear and Rotational Motion
x
displacement
velocity
v a
v
x
1 2
acceleration
at
vt
1 2
v0
v0
equations of motion
1 2
0
0
t
t
1 2 1 2
x
x
2
v0t
vt
at
at
2 0
t
t t
2
2
1 2
2
2
t
2 0
v
v
2 0
2a x
2
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Chapter 8A Torque
Chapter 14B
Constructive and Destructive Interference
Linear superposition occurs when sound waves meet: Constructive interference: The waves are "in phase" with each other. The waves reinforce each other. The result is an intensified sound.
Destr
Chapter 13A Review of Hooke's Law
For elastic tensile deformations:
F A L Y L0 YA L0 kx
F
L
For a given object, Y, A, and L0 will remain constant
(x L)
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F
Chapter 13A Hooke's Law Applied to Springs
The force needed to stretch or compress a spri
Chapter 7A
Chapters 7 and 8 deal with rotational motion, and with objects traveling in circular paths.
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Chapter 7A Angular Displacement (
An object's angular displacement ( ) is the angle through which it rotates during some time interval.
)
T
Math Review Algebra Review
An equation tells us that two mathematical expressions are equal to each other. Expressions can contain both variables and constants, as in:
3x 5 2x 2
or
v
v0
at
When we solve an equation we manipulate the expressions
Chapter 2A Kinematics - The Study of Motion
We will begin by studying motion in one dimension (motion in a straight line). Our objectives: Learn the terms that describe motion
Learn how these terms are related
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Chapter 2A Position or Location
A
Chapter 4B Equilibrium
Some applications of Newton's laws involve objects in equilibrium. An object in equilibrium is not accelerating. Its velocity is constant (maybe zero). The net force on the object is zero.
F 0 Fx Fy 0 0
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Chapter 4B Equil
Chapter 5A Work
A force F does work when it acts on an object, and the object moves through some displacement x.
W F cos x
W = amount of work performed F = magnitude of applied force F (always +) x = magnitude of displacement x (always +) = angle be
Chapter 3A Vector Quantities
Vector quantities are characterized by having both a magnitude, with appropriate units, and a direction.
By contrast, scalar quantities have a magnitude, but no direction.
vectors displacements velocities accelerations f
Chapter 4A The Laws of Motion
So far we have discussed motion in terms of displacement, velocity, and acceleration.
Now we will study the cause of motion. (More specifically, we will study what causes motion to change.)
We need to introduce two new
Research Methods 1) Experiments - Cause and Effect model - Isolate effects of ONE variable to see what outcomes occur - Multiple causes of human behavior - Must have 2 groups equivalent - Random assignment - All characteristics have an equal opportun
Chapter 6B Collisions
Momentum is conserved during a collision. What about kinetic energy? Colliding objects may do work by deforming each other.
Some kinetic energy may lost due to friction.
So is kinetic energy conserved?
(Rarely)
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Chapter 6B
Chapter 6A Newton's Second Law and Collisions
Applying Newton's second law is difficult when the forces are not constant. When objects collide the forces and accelerations are not constant.
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Chapter 6A Equations of Motion and Collisions
Our equati
Chapter 5B Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
Objects have kinetic energy when they are moving:
KE
1 2
mv2
Objects can have potential energy due to their position:
PE mgy
They can have both forms of energy at the same time.
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Chapter 5B When Gra
Chapter 13B Wave Motion
Common features of waves:
Waves are traveling disturbances.
There is no bulk movement of matter.
Waves carry energy from place to place.
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Chapter 13B Wave Motion
Two types of waves: Transverse - the disturbance is per