Things that are similar share common attributes
Ex. Socrates is snub-nosed, so Socrates instantiates snub-nosedness.
Realism: Similarity exists in the multiple exemplifications of attributes. (Burden of proof)
Tropism: Similarity of ordinary t
The problem with realism is the problem with trying to establish relation between things.
Ex. The barn is red.
is = the relation of exemplification
What relates the barn to the relation of exemplification and the relation of exemplification to
The problem of Universals
Arrises because of a contradiction about our belief that two things can be the same, yet different.
Same does not always equal identical. Universals are one of the solutions to the problem of
Parmenides (adopted the theory of temporal parts)
(p1) For a thing to change is for it to become what it is not
(p2) Nothing can become what it is not
Therefore, (p3) nothing can change
Heraclitus (rejects (Q) in order to resolve the disagreement between
The Ancient Criterion of Change:
Is a series of statements that attempt to prescribe change. These statements are thought to be
the only way that an object can change. According to the Ancient Criterion of Change an
object changes if and only if 1) there
The Doctrine of Temporal parts
Every physical object (x) that persists through a period of time (T) is much that for every subperiod of time (t) that is included in (T) there exists an object (xt) that is a temporal part of (x)
and (xt) does not exist at
The Principle of the Indiscernibility of Identicals:
States that if two objects are one and the same object, then every feature, characteristic, and
property of one of the objects are also a feature, characteristic, and property of the other object.