is the study of the functioning of earth's systems and how they affect
or are affected by human activities and interactions
Plate Techtonics definition and types of boundaries
=different plates on earth that move (large and small
Regional Metamorphism - is extensive in nature and can involve
areas that are 100s of km by 100s km
- occurs deep in the Earth at high Pressure and Temperature
- associated with roots of folded mountains formed by plate
collisions + continental shields
Precipitation to feed the aquifer
Substantial variations in topography so that the water table intersects the surface of the
land (this alone can produce a spring sometimes)
Not the only way water flows to surface on its own
Water also flows to surface in
Multimineralic - most contain only 3 minerals
- includes most metamorphic rocks
- common minerals are those of igneous and sedimentary rocks
- new minerals are formed as a result of metamorphism:
Folds, Faults and Mountains
Folding, Faulting + Mountain Building are studied by Structural Geologists
rocks fold or break
It has to do with deformation characteristics
processes cause rocks to be deformed
Earth rocks be
Amphibolite - medium to high-grade
regional metamorphic rock
composed largely of ferro-magnesian minerals.
- composed chiefly of hornblende and plagioclase
- typically dark colored
(green, gray, black)
may be meta-igneous or meta-sedimentary
Gneiss - co
Chemically Active Fluids - hydrothermal solutions heated by
or released from magma
- fluids are important in dissolving, transporting
and precipitating minerals
- fluids tend to increase reaction rates
Does the appearance of the rocks change when metamorp
Blueschist - rocks form in high Pressure low Temperature conditions
- these conditions occur in subduction zones
- blueschist rocks are named for the diagnostic blue amphiboles
and layered-silicates that grow under these conditions
more than one type of M
- upon death 14C begins to decay to 14N by beta decay
- method good for material up to 50,000 years old (e.g. 15,000
year old moccasins from Missouri cave)
1 to 4% variation in production rate of 14C is a small problem
most radioactive elements only occ
Groundwater moves centimeters/day (much slower than a stream or river)
The speed of groundwater movement is a function of the porosity, permeability and
slope of the soils/rocks through which the water is moving.
porosity () = volume of pore space
Student Name: Brandon Walker
Chapter 2.3 The Nitrogen Cycle and Sources of Pollution
Figure 1:The Nitrogen Cycle
Pre lab preparation:
Read e-text Chapter 2.3 and complete the pre lab questions*
Complete e-text post quiz 2.3
Pre Lab Learning Objectives
- gravitational contraction of a rotating gas cloud leads to a dense
central region and a flat nebula
- particles condense and form larger particles, planetesimals
- high energy collisions leads to elements forming
- inelastic collisio
What are the 3 classifications of rocks?
Igneous, Metamorphic, Sedimentary
How are the classifications of rocks determined?
The formative mechanism of the rick
What are igneous rocks derived from?
Magmas: they crystallize directly from a melt
what is environmental geology?
it examines the interactions between human society and Earth's
South Pacific Ocean, flourishing society;
rats introduced to island, killed chickens, ruined agriculture, statues
What is the core of the earth made of?
Iron and nickel
What are the layers of the earth based on chemical properties?
Crust (silicates), mantle (silicates), core (iron/nickel)
What are the layers of the earth based on physical properties?
the region of our solar system between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
in which asteroids are heavily concentrated
A relatively small and rocky object that orbits a star; asteroids are
officially considered part of a category kno
Why is there contradiction about biological evolution in the US but not
in many other countries?
study by Jon Miller & colleagues in Science (2006)
What 3 factors did Jon Miller and colleagues find?
3 factors were most strongly linked to individuals w
naturally occurring inorganic substances with a definite set of physical
properties and a narrow range of chemical compositions.
consolidated or poorly consolidated aggregates of one or more
minerals or organic matter.
types of rock that are formed by the deposition of material at
the Earth's surface and within bodies of water
Significance of Sedimentary Rocks
A. Has fossils that date rock
B. Best indication of ancient climate
C. Economically impor
Absolute Dating Safeguards
- run duplicate analyses
- use several different radioactive isotopes to determine an age
- if different methods agree you probably have a good age
compare absolute ages to relative ages
Other Methods for Measuring Absolute Ti