Directive leadership is also thought to be less effective when employees have
high levels of ability. When managing professional employees with high levels of
expertise and job-specific knowledge, telling them what to do may create a lowempowerment envir
According to reinforcement theory, motivation is a form of learning that can be shaped
by rewards and punishments.
Reinforcement theory describes four interventions to modify employee behavior. Two of
these are methods of increasing the frequency of desir
Which motivation theory have you found to be the most useful in explaining why
people behave in a certain way? Why?
Review the hygiene and motivators in the two-factor theory of motivation. Do you
agree with the distinction between hygiene factors and mot
Managing Demographic and Cultural Diversity
Using examples, explain the concepts of expectancy, instrumentality, and
Some practitioners and researchers consider OB Mod unethical because it may
be viewed as a way of manipulation. What wo
-people who are conscientious, agreeable, and emotionally stable are less likely to quit
What is the difference between performance and organizational citizenship
behaviors? How would you increase someones performance? How would you
Motivation is one of the forces that lead to performance.
Motivation is clearly important if someone is to perform well; however, it is not
Motivation: the desire to achieve a goal or a certain performance level, leading to
People who are perceived as leaders in one society may have different traits
compared to people perceived as leaders in a different culture, because each
society has a concept of ideal leader prototypes.
Certain leader traits seem
1. Do you think the sustainability movement in business is a trend that heres to stay
or a business fad? Why or why not?
2. Do you see the aging (and retiring) workforce as an opportunity or a threat for
businesses? How do you think this will affect your
How does your learning style affect the kinds of classes you take?
Try out a few of the suggestions for your learning style over the next week and
see how they work.
Now that youve learned more about your own learning style, are there some
things you migh
While individualists may evaluate the performance of their colleagues more
accurately, collectivists are more likely to be generous when evaluating their in-group
In high power distance cultures, people occupying more powerful posi