Connective Tissues and Cardiac Skeleton
Large number of collagen and elastic fibers
Each muscle is wrapped in strong, elastic sheath
Connective tissue provide
Physical support for cardiac muscle fibers, blood vessels, and
Distribute forces of contr
Loose Connective Tissues
-Areolar was the early name for the loose connective tissue that connects many
adjacent structures of the body.
-It acts like a glue spread between them.
-The word areolar means like a small pace and refers to the bubbles that
-Functionally, rapid communication is possible because nervous tissue has much
more developed excitability and conductivity characteristics than any other type
of tissue does.
-The organs of the nervous system are the brain, the spinal cord
Types of Tissues
-It specializes in communication between the various parts of the body and in
integration of their activities.
-This tissues major function in the generation of complex messages for the
coordination of body functions.
- The four major tis
-Of all the hundreds of different protean compounds in the body, collagen is the
-Reticular fibers, in contrast to collagenous fibers, occur in networks and,
although delicate, support small structures such as capillaries and nerve f
Functions of Tissues
A tissue is a group of similar cells that perform a common function.
-Tissues can be thought of as the fabric of the body, which is sewn together: to
form the organs of the body and to hold all the organs together as a whole.
Bone and Their Functions
-Bone is a rather unique from of very hard connective tissue.
-The mature cells of bone are embedded in a unique matrix material containing
both collagen fibers and mineral salt crystals.
-The inorganic mineral crystals make about
-This type of epithelium is seen in many types of glands and their ducts.
-It is also found in the ducts and tubules of other organs, such as the kidney.
-Connective tissue is one of the most widespread and diverse tissues in the body
-Proteins in the extracellular matrix include various types of structural protein
fibers such as collagen and elastin.
-The ECM also contains many glycoproteins, which are mainly protein molecules
with attached carbohydrate subunits.
-The lining epithelium of the gut and respiratory tract allows for the absorption of
nutrients from the gut and the exchange of respiratory gases between air in the
lungs and the bloods.
-The unique epithelial lining of kidney tubule
Muscle Tissue and Carcinogens
-Like muscle tissue, nerve tissue also has a limited capacity to regenerate.
-Neurons can sometimes regenerate, but very slowly and only certain neuroglia
is present to pave the way.
-In the normal adult brain and spinal cord
Hussein Reda 1
Bio 1510 lab
Enzyme Lab Final Report
Enzymes are known as catalysts that speed up chemical reactions by lowering a reactions
activation energy. Activation energy is the energy required for a c
Bio 1510 lab
Enzymes Lab Report Draft Outline
A. Basic background info about enzymes (BIO 1510 Laboratory Manual, 2015)
1. Enzymes are known as catalysts that that speed up chemical reactions
a. Enzymes ar
Voluntary Control of Respiration
Conscious thought processes tied to strong emotions affect respiratory
rate by stimulating hypothalamus
Emotional states affect respiration by activating sympathetic or
Anticipation of strenuous activity tr
Superficial Anatomy of the Heart
Expandable extension of atrium = Auricle
Coronary Sulcus: Deep groove marking border between atria and
Lots of fat in-between the sulci.
Epicardium: Visceral pericardium that covers outside surface o
Right Ventricle: Receives blood through broad opening bordered by three
Flaps are called cusps, part of the right atrioventricular valve
Attached to chordae tendineae fibers
Fibers originate at papillary mu
Pulmonary Circuit: Blood vessels to and from gas exchange surfaces in lungs
Systemic Circuit: Blood vessels to and from rest of body
Arteries (Efferent Vessels): Carry blood away from heart
Veins (Afferent Vessels):
Activities of respiratory centers are modified from
Chemoreceptors sensitive to Pco2, pH, or Po
Glossopharyngeal nerves from carotid bodies
Vagus nerves in aortic bodies
Ventrolateral surface of medulla oblongata
Diffusion and Respiratory Function
Gas Laws apply to diffusion of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen
Composition of Alveolar Air
When air enters respiratory tract, characteristics change
Air becomes warmer and water vapor increases
Reaching alveoli, ai
Gas Exchange Physics
Gases are exchanged between alveolar air and blood through diffusion
Rate varies due to size of gradient and temperature
Determined by gas laws
Boyles Law: Determines direction of air movement in pulmonary
Transport in Hemoglobin
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide have limited solubility in blood
Red blood cells solve the issue by removing oxygen and carbon dioxide
form plasma and binding to them (oxygen) or manufacture soluble
Continue to diffuse in
Carbon Dioxide Transport
Travels in the bloodstream in 3 different ways
Converted to a molecule of carbonic acid
Through the help of carbonic anhydrase
Reaction is completely reversible
Hydrogen ions bind to hemoglobin molecule to form an
ion, acting as a
-Blood performs many body transport functions, including movement of
respiratory gases, nutrients, and waste products.
-Blood plays a critical role in maintaining a constant body temperature and
regulating the pH of body fluids.
-White blood cells f