Cognition refers to the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing,
remembering, and communicating. Cognitive psychologists study these activities
including the logical and illogical ways we solve problems and make decisions.
Contrast the representativeness and availability heuristics, and explain how they
can cause us to underestimate or ignore important information.
The representativeness heuristic involves judging the likelihood of things
in terms of how well they seem t
Discuss Skinners and Chomskys contributions to the nature-nurture
debate over how children acquire language, and explain why statistical learning
and critical periods are important concepts in childrens language learning.
The debate between the behavio
Describe the remedy for the belief perseverance phenomenon
We exhibit belief perseverance, clinging to our ideas in the face of contrary
evidence because the explanation we accepted as valid lingers in our minds. Once
beliefs are formed and justified,
Types of Encoding
E.g., peg-word system
Method of loci
Reminders of information we could not otherwise recall
Guides to where to look for info
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
Suspects found to make false confessions during police interrogations
Attention and Memory
Attention: internal processes used to focus our awareness on a subset of
FALSE 1. Memory storage is never automatic; it always takes effort.
FALSE 2. The day after you are introduced to a number of new co-workers you will
easily recall the names of those you met first.
TRUE 3. Research indicates that memory is
True or False?
1. When people go around a circle saying their names, their poorest memories are
for what was said by the person just before them.
2. Our experiences are etched on our brain, just as the grooves on a tape receive and
Iconic and echoic memory systems may allow us to experience the world as a
Stage 1: Sensory Memory
Stage 2: Short-Term Memory
limited in duration and capacity
George Millers magical number 7 +/- 2