Gender discrimination today: Why do men still out-earn women?
Pay inequity (comparable worth?)
Under-representation in management and administration
The mommy track
The sticky floor
Faculty salaries reflect pay differentials between men and
Examples of issues arising under this clause.
Value of freedom of expression
Watchdog for government
Voice for the minority
Preservation of the truth
Restrictions on seditious speech
Sedition: speech that criticizes the government
Seneca Falls Convention and the Declaration of Sentiments (1848)
Rights denied on the
basis of gender, contd.
Battle for suffrage
Began in the states
Wyoming: first state to grant suffrage
States slow to follow Wyomings lead
Ratification of the 19th Amen
Individual freedoms that place limitations on the power of government. In
general, civil liberties protect our right to think and act without governmental
Refer to the extension of government action to secure citizenship rights
Main concepts, contd
Additionally, one must also understand that the Bill of Rights, as written, was
directed to Congress, the national government.
It was not originally designed to limit the conduct of state governments; however,
over the years, Supreme
The Court took ruling a step further in 2010, holding that not only could the
federal government not violate an individuals right to bear arms, but neither
could a state government.
Second Amendment: The right to bear arms, contd
In opposition to an indi
The States and the
The right to privacy
No explicit Constitutional right to privacy, but rather the right to privacy is an
interpretation by the Supreme Court
From the First, Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Ninth Amendments
The Right to Privacy
We can probably expect some flux in the laws on Internet censorship as the
courts become more familiar with the medium itself and the issues surrounding it.
Restricting other types of speech, contd
Fighting words: words whose express purpose is to create
The sodomy cases
Bowers v. Hardwick (1986)
Lawrence v. Texas (2003)
The controversy over same-sex marriage
The Massachusetts Supreme Court (2003)
The California Supreme Court (2008)
United States v. Windsor (2013)
Currently, the United States
Fourth Amendment: protection against unreasonable searches and seizures
The exclusionary rule mandates that
illegally obtained evidence cannot be used
against a defendant.
Numerous exceptions to the general
rule that the police need a warrant to sear