Always have the same composition.
Either elements or compounds.
Pure water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen (H2), gold (Au)
Have variable composition.
Wood, wine, coffee
Can be separated into pure substance
Mixtures can be separated based on different physical properties of the
Distillation of a Solution Consisting of Salt Dissolved in Water
No chemical change occurs when salt water is distilled.
Separates a liquid from a solid.
Rules for Naming Type III Binary Compounds
Formed between two nonmetals.
1. The first element in the formula is named first, and the full element name is used.
2. The second element is named as though it were an anion.
3. Prefixes are used to denote the
If the anion contains oxygen:
The suffix ous is added to the root name if the anion name ends in ite.
HNO2 Nitrous acid
H2SO3 Sulfurous acid
HClO2 Chlorous acid
Some Oxygen-Containing Acids
Flowchart for Naming Acids
Which of the follo
Ernest Rutherford (1911)
Explained the nuclear atom.
Atom has a dense center of positive charge called the nucleus.
Electrons travel around the nucleus at a relatively large distance.
A proton has the same magnitude of charge as the electron, but its cha
Four Driving Forces Favor Chemical Change
1. Formation of a solid
2. Formation of water
3. Transfer of electrons
4. Formation of a gas
A reaction in which a solid forms is called a precipitation reaction.
1. Solid = precipitate
Types of Equations for Reactions in Aqueous Solutions
2. Complete Ionic Equation
All strong electrolytes are shown as ions.
Notice: K+ and NO3 ions are present in solution both before and after the
Types of Equations for Reactions in Aqueous So
1. Write the reactants as they actually exist before any reaction occurs. Remember
that when a salt dissolves, its ions separate.
2. Consider the various solids that could form. To do this, simply exchange the
anions of the added salts.
3. Use the solubil
The symbol usually consists of the first one or two letters of the elements name.
Sometimes the symbol is taken from the elements original Latin or Greek name.
Names and Symbols of the
1. The common strong acids are aqueous solutions of HCl, HNO 3, and H2SO4.
2. A strong acid is a substance that completely dissociates (ionizes) in water (into
H+ ions and anions).
3. A strong base is a metal hydroxide compound that is very soluble in wat