If an object has a mass of 243.8 g and occupies a volume of 0.125 L, what is the
density of this object in g/cm3?
Copper has a density of 8.96 g/cm3. If 75.0 g of copper is added to 50.0 mL of
water in a grad
Thermodynamics is the study of heat and other forms of energy involved in chemical
or physical processes.
First Law of Thermodynamics
The first law of thermodynamics is essentially the law of conservation of energy applied
to a thermodynamic system.
H2(g) + F2(g) 2HF(g); Kc = 1.15 102
3.000 mol of each species is put in a
1.500-L vessel. What is the equilibrium concentration of each species?
The value of Kc at 227C is 0.0952 for the following reaction:
CH3OH(g) CO(g) + 2H2(g)
What is Kp at this tempe
When two p orbitals overlap sideways, two p molecular orbitals form: p 2p and p*2p.
Because two p orbitals on each atom overlap with two p orbitals on another atom, a
total of four molecular orbitals form: two bonding and two antibonding.
Because there ar
Methanol (also called wood alcohol) is made commercially by hydrogenation of carbon
monoxide at elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of a catalyst:
2H2(g) + CO(g) CH3OH(g)
What is the Kc expression for this reaction?
When we are given some in
Dipole Moment and Molecular Geometry
Explain the relationship between the dipole moment and molecular
Note that the polarity of a molecule can affect certain properties, such as
Valence Bond Theory
valence bond theo
Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations
When all but one equilibrium concentration and the value of Kc are known.
When the value of Kc and the initial concentrations are known.
When the Kc expression is a perfect square: solving a linear equation.
From the ideal gas law, we know that
When you express an equilibrium constant for a gaseous reaction in terms of partial
pressures, you call it the equilibrium constant, Kp.
In general, the value of Kp is different from that of Kc.
We will explore this re
Changing the Pressure and Temperature
Describe the effect of a pressure change on chemical equilibrium.
Apply Le Chteliers principle when the pressure is altered.
Describe the effect of a temperature change on chemical equilibrium.
Apply Le Chteliers prin
The Equilibrium Constant
equilibrium-constant expression and equilibrium constant.
State the law of mass action.
the kinetics argument for the approach to chemical equilibrium.
Obtain an equilibrium constant from reaction
Which atom would require more energy to remove an electron? Why?
In general as we go across a period from left to right, the atomic radius
Effective nuclear charge increases, therefore the valence electrons
Rules for Rounding Off
1. If the digit to be removed is less than 5, the preceding digit stays the same.
5.64 rounds to 5.6 (if final result to 2 sig figs)
Rules for Rounding Off
1. If the digit to be removed is equal to or greater than 5, the preceding
The Structure of the Atom (see Part 1)
4.6 Introduction to the Modern Concept of Atomic Structure (see Part 1)
4.7 Isotopes (see Part 1)
4.8 Introduction to the Periodic Table (see Part 1)
4.9 Natural States of the Elements
Has no fixed volume or shape.
Takes the shape and volume of its container.
Air, helium, oxygen
The characteristics of matter that can be changed without changing its
Characteristics that are directly observable.
Measurement of Length Using a Ruler
The length of the pin occurs at about 2.85 cm.
Certain digits: 2.85
Uncertain digit: 2.85
Rules for Counting Significant Figures
1. Nonzero integers always count as significant figures.
3456 has 4 sig figs (significant
Nature of Measurement
Quantitative observation consisting of two parts.
The Fundamental SI Units
Prefixes Used in the SI System
Prefixes are used to change the size of the unit.
Fundamental SI unit of length is the meter.
Bunsen burner (methane reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide
Electrolysis of Water
Electrolysis of Water
Water decomposes to hydrogen and oxygen gases.
How many of the following are examples of a chemical change?
Has 2 parts number and unit.
Number tells comparison.
Unit tells scale.
Technique used to express very large or very small numbers.
Expresses a number as a product of a number between 1 and 10 and the
appropriate power of 10.
Using Scientific Notation
Use when converting a given result from one system of units to another.
1) To convert from one unit to another, use the equivalence statement that
relates the two units.
2) Choose the appropriate conversion factor by looking at the direction of the
As atoms approach one another, their atomic orbitals overlap and form molecular
Molecular orbitals concentrated in regions between nuclei are called bonding orbitals.
They are obtained by adding atomic orbitals.
Molecular orbitals having zero va