Discuss with the lab instructor and among yourselves what the sources of error are in
this experiment and answer the following questions.
1. What factors give rise to the spread of mass ratio values for a given set of cars?
2. Estimate appropriate errors
A pendulum is schematically shown in Figure 2.
Fig. 2. A pendulum defining the angle .
The motion of a pendulum is a SHM only if the angular displacement of the
pendulum is small (<10); therefore, in order to observe the SHM of a pendulum, the
(A2); T for the pendulum depends only on the length L according to Equation
(A2). In the development of Equation (A2) the approximate force law is
for the spring-mass system,
for the pendulum.
and the coeffi
You will observe and understand the simplest form of periodic motion-simple harmonic
Use a pendulum to determine the dependence of the period on the length.
Use a spring to determine the dependence of the period on the mass.
Read the discussi
Fig. 3. A detailed view of the calorimeter!
Calculation of the Equivalent Amount of Heat: The heat, Q, required to produce
increase in temperature of the cylinder, T , is
where m is the mass of the cylinder and c is t
You will verify the law of conservation of momentum for both elastic and inelastic
Learn how setup quasi elastic collision between cars using an air track.
Learn how to measure the momentum of objects in motion.
Measure the momenta of a sys
To measure the acceleration of an object as a function of the angle of
the incline, to determine whether this acceleration is dependent on
the mass of the object, and to indirectly determine the acceleration
due to gravity !g.
Imagine yourself at the to
a1 = (x)2 +(2t )2
Fig. 2. The incline plane (air track and car).
This is the most complicated case: the cars are fitted with springs and rebound off
of one another. Thus +p2,i =p1, f +p2, f . p1,i
So, you must measure two initial velocities and two final velocities; see the table in the
In this experiment, you will determine vA and vB by measuring the time (tA and tB ) that it
takes the length of flags on the cars ( LA and LB ) to pass through a photogate. The
"instantaneous" velocities of the two cars at the position of the photogate ca