Henrys law describes the effect of pressure on gas solubility:
The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas
above the solution.
This is expressed mathematically in the equation
S = kHP
S = gas solub
relative ionization energies from periodic trends.
broad general trend in electron affinity across any period.
Periodicity in the Main-Group Elements
basic oxide, acidic oxide, and amphoteric oxide.
main group corresponding to an alkali
The first shell (n = 1) has one subshell, an s-subshell, 1s.
That subshell, in turn, has one orbital.
When n = 2, l has two values, 0 and 1.
When l = 0, ml has only one value, 0.
So there is a 2s subshell with one orbital.
When l = 1, ml has only three va
The valence configuration consists of the electrons outside the noble-gas or pseudonoble-gas core.
For main-group (representative) elements, an s or a p subshell is being filled.
For d-block transition elements, a d subshell is being filled.
The building-up principle (or aufbau principle) is a scheme used to reproduce the
ground-state electron configurations by successively filling subshells with electrons in a
specific order (the building-up order).
This order generally corresponds to fillin
Electronic Structure of Atoms
We characterize an atomic orbital by four quantum numbers: n, l, m l, and ms.
In the first section, we look further at electron spin; then we discuss how electrons are
distributed among the possible orbitals of an atom.
A basic oxide reacts with acids. Most metal oxides are basic. If soluble, their water
solutions are basic.
An acidic oxide reacts with bases. Most nonmetal oxides are acidic. If soluble, their
water solutions are acidic.
An amphoteric oxide reacts
First Ionization Energy (first ionization potential)
The minimum energy needed to remove the highest-energy (outermost) electron from a
neutral atom in the gaseous state, thereby forming a positive ion.
Going down a group, first ionization energy d
Mendeleevs periodic table generally organized elements by increasing atomic mass
and with similar properties in columns.
In some places, there were missing elements whose properties he predicted.
When gallium, scandium, and germanium were isolated and cha
Group VIA, Chalcogens (ns2np4)
Oxygen, sulfur, and selenium are nonmetals; tellurium is a metalloid; polonium is a
The oxide formulas are RO2 and RO3.
Sulfur, selenium, and tellurium oxides are acidic except for TeO 2, which is amphoteric.
Coagulation is the process by which the dispersed phase of a colloid is made to
aggregate and thereby separate from the continuous phase.
It is analogous to precipitation from a solution.
Curdled milk is an example of coagulation.
When molecules or ions t
The freezing point of a solution is lower than the freezing point of pure solvent.
The freezing-point depression, DTf, is given by the following equation:
DTf = mKf
A solution is made up of eugenol, C10H12O2, in diethyl ether (ether).
If the solution is 0
Classification of Solids by Type of Attraction of Units
Crystalline Solids; Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells
Structures of Some Crystalline Solids
Calculations Involving Unit-Cell Dimensions
Determining Crystal Structure by X-Ray Diffraction
The liquid in the case of a solution of gases or solids, or the component present in the
Fluids that mix with or dissolve in each other in all proportions are said to be miscible
Ways of Expressing Con
Ionic solutes dissolve to form more than one particle per formula unit.
We alter the colligative property equations to account for this fact by including i, the
number of ions per formula unit:
DP = iPAXB
DTb = iKbm
DTf = iKfm
p = iMRT
The heat of fusion, DHfus, is the heat needed to melt a solid. It is given in kJ/mol.
For water, the phase change is represented by
H2O(s) H2O(l); DHfus = 6.01 kJ/mol
The heat of vaporization, DHvap, is the heat needed to vaporize a liquid. It is given in
A solution of iodine, I2, in methylene chloride, CH2Cl2, contains 5.00 g I2 and 56.0 g
mole fraction of each component in this solution
A bottle of bourbon is labeled 94 proof, meaning that it is 47% by volume of alcohol in
mole fraction of
the Tyndall effect.
hydrophilic colloids and hydrophobic colloids.
micelles can form an association colloid.
When dissolving absorbs heat (is endothermic), the temperature of the solution
decreases as the solute dis
Comparing Gases, Liquids, and Solids
Gases are compressible fluids.
Liquids are relatively incompressible fluids.
Solids are nearly incompressible and rigid.
A change of state or phase transition is a change of a substance from one state (solid,
According to quantum mechanics, each electron is described by four quantum numbers:
1. Principal quantum number (n)
2. Angular momentum quantum number (l)
3. Magnetic quantum number (ml)
4. Spin quantum number (ms)
The first three define the wave function