-Such a bond occurs as a result of the attraction between atoms that have
become electrically charged by the loss or gain of electrons.
-When dissolved in water, such atoms are called ions.
-Ions can be positively or negatively charged and t
Functions of Water
-Because of its polar nature, water tends to ionize substances in solution and
surround any molecule that has an electrical charge.
-The critical role that water plays as a solvent permits the transportation of many
-Atoms contain several different kinds of smaller or subatomic particles that are
found in either a central nucleus or its surrounding electron cloud or field.
-The number of negatively charged electrons moving around an atoms nucleus
equals the num
-Each ring represents a different energy level, and each can hold only a certain
maximum number of electrons.
-The number and arrangement of electrons orbiting in an atoms energy levels
are important because they determine whether the atom
Basic Principles of Chemistry
-Anatomy and physiology are subdivisions of biology, the study of life.
-Life itself depends on proper levels and proportions of chemical substances in
the cytoplasm of cells.
-The various structural levels of organization ar
-The release of energy is related to the disruption of chemical bonds.
-This breakdown of bonds in the chemical compounds contained in the foods and
beverages that we consume provides the energy to power all of our activities.
Organic and Inorganic Compounds
-In living organisms, there are two kinds of compounds: organic and inorganic.
-Organic compounds are generally defined as compounds composed of
molecules that contain carbon-carbon covalent bonds or carbon-hydrogen
Types of Reactions
-The products of such a reaction are ultimately waste products.
-Decomposition and synthesis are opposite.
-Synthesis builds up; decomposition breaks down.
-Synthesis forms chemical bonds; decomposition breaks chemical bonds.
Properties of Water
-The ability of water molecules to form hydrogen bonds with each other accounts
for many of the unique properties of water that makes it an ideal medium for the
chemistry of life.
0Hydrogen bonds are also important in maintaining the t
Acids and Bases
-Early chemists categorized acids and bases by such characteristics as taste or
the ability to change the color of certain dyes.
-Acids taste sour and bases taste bitter.
-The dye litmus will turn blue in the presence of a base and red whe