Growth organized increase in the size and number of cells and therefore an
increase in size of the individual or a particular organ or part
Respiration exchange of respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide)
between an organism and its environ
Anatomy and Physiology
-Anatomy and physiology are branches of biology that are concerned with the
form and functions of the body.
-Anatomy is often defined as the study of the structure of an organism and the
relationship of its parts.
-Biology is define
-Prions are proteins that convert normal proteins of the nervous system into
abnormal proteins, thereby causing loss of nervous system function.
-Viruses are intracellular parasites that consist of a DNA or RNA core surrounded
by a protein c
Anterior and posterior Anterior means front or in front of. Posterior means back
or in back of.
-Sagittal plane a lengthwise plane running from front to back; divide the body or
any of its parts into right and left sides. If a sagittal s
Basic components of homeostatic control mechanisms
-Heat regulation by a furnace controlled by a thermostat
-Homeostasis of body temperature, a stimulus activates a sensor mechanism
that ands input to an integrating, or control, center, which
Homeostatic Control Systems
-Homeostatic control systems can operate at any of several different levels:
within the cell, from cell to cell within a tissue, and throughout the body. This
layering of regulation allows for precise coordination of functions
-Systems are the most complex of the organization units of the body. The system
level of organization involves varying numbers and kinds of organs arranged so
that, together, they can perform complex functions of the body.
-Eleven major systems co
-Golgi apparatus provides a packaging service to the cell by sorting material
for future internal use or for export from the cell.
-Endoplasmic reticulum the network of transport channels within the cell that
acts as highways for the movement o
Inflammatory and Risk Factors
-When the inflammatory response occurs at inappropriate times or is abnormally
prolonged or severe, normal tissues may become damaged. Thus some disease
symptoms are caused by the inflammatory response.
Degeneration by means
-Each cell of the body, each tissue, and each organ system plays an important
role in homeostasis. Each of the diverse regulatory systems described in
subsequent chapters of the text is explained as a function of homeostasis.