Vision in Adults
-Third, there is a sensitive period for recovery when the visual system has the
potential to recover from damage
-Sensory experience is vital in determining the organization of the developing
-Imagine what visual perception would b
Sensation and Perception
-Psychologists have long distinguished between sensation and perception.
-Sensation is the process by which sensory receptor neurons detect information
and transmit it to the brain. From birth, infants sense their environment.
-This capacity is required in childrens games that involve feeling objects hidden
in a bag and identifying what they are by touch alone.
-The perceptual competencies of even very young infants are remarkable, as is
the progress made wi
-At birth, newborns visual acuity, or the ability to perceive detail, is 40 times
worse than an adults, but improves across the first month of life to roughly the
equivalent of 20/120 vision on the standard eye chartbeing able to see only the
-Whispers become harder to hear, seeing in the dark becomes difficult, food may
not taste as good, and so on.
-Often these declines begin in early adulthood and become noticeable in the 40s,
sometimes giving middle-aged people a feeling
-Years after corrective surgery, individuals who missed out on early visual
experience because of congenital cataracts show normal visual abilities in some
areas, such as sensitivity to low spatial frequencies (for example, wide str
-This procedure can be used to test for discrimination of stimuli by all the senses
vision, hearing, touch, and even taste and smell.
-Young infants are not easily conditioned, but they can learn to suck faster or
slower or to turn their head to th
-With age, attention becomes more selective and less susceptible to distraction.
-As infants approach 2 years, they become able to form plans of action, which
then guide what they focus on and what they ignore
-Many children with ADHD
Nature v Nurture
-With experience, we create an association between the retinal image (for
example, small) and its meaning (for example, distant object).
-On the nature side of the issue are the nativists, who argue that interpreting
external inputthose i
-Newborns can hear wellbetter than they can see.
-They can also localize sounds: they are startled by loud noises and will turn from
them, but they will turn toward softer sounds
-Even fetuses can hear some of what is going on in the w
-Most experts agree that a coordinated effort is needed for the best outcomes.
-This includes behavioral programs designed to teach children with ADHD to stay
focused on tasks, control their impulsiveness, and interact socially; parent