WHAT ARE STEREOTYPES?
Fixed, over-generalized beliefs about a particular group or class
Commonly accepted public belief about a certain social, cultural,
racial, gender, or ethnic group or a type of individual.
Stereotypes are ofte
ESSENTIALISM & ETHNOCENTRISM
Essentialism: the reduction of a people to an "essential" idea of what
it means to be African/Indian/Arab etc
Essentialism is often linked to absolute differences between us and
them as well as stereotyping and prejudice
Worlds only 7 Star hotel (United Arab Emirates)
Man Made Palm Tree Island in the United Arab Emirates (Picture
taken from space)
United Arab Emirates
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Atlas Mountain behind Menara Gardens M
CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS
Islam was made into Mohammadism because Mohammad was the
founder of this religion and since religion of Christ was called
Muslims mostly unaware of terminology -had no say in matter.
US VS. THEM- Clash of Civilizations
THROUGH WESTERN EYES (MANSFIELD)
To most Westerners the word 'Arab' still seemed to conjure up a
picture of a sheikh (tribal head/leader) in flowing robes, brandishing
an outdated rifle as he urged his camel across the sand dunes to
attack a neighboring
Span the boundaries of multiple nation-states.
This leads to hybridity or the possession of multiple and mixed
ARAB IDENTITY- E PLURIBUS UNUM
Persons and groups in the eastern Arab world see themselves and
The Scope of Orientalism (East vs. West)
Orientalists divided world in 2 parts using concept
of ours and theirs.
An imaginary geographical line was drawn between what
was ours and what was theirs.
Westerns racially superior/refined- Orientals inferior
Kuwaiti sociologist Muhammed Rumayhi detected such distances
between Sunnis and Shi'ites in the Gulf states even before the IraqIran war, noting that in the 1970
ORIENTALISM (1978- Edward Said)
Challenged concept of Orientalism or the diff. between east and
west, as he puts it.
Argued that at start of European colonization, Europeans came
in contact with the lesser developed countries of the east.
They found thei
Islam was 'a game of chance, similar to bridge'.
Islam was 'a mysterious sect founded in the south by the Ku Klux
Islam is 'an organization of American Masons who dress in strange
costumes'. The Prophet Mohammed was thought to be the man who