EDUCATION IN THE COLONIES/BACKLASH
Most important change French introduced was a system of modern
education, although severe restrictions were placed upon educational
opportunities for colonized children.
Typically rare for children from modest or poor Mu
ISLAM NOT ALWAYS DOMINANT FORCE?
The Islamic revival is part of a broader puzzle.
Thinkers as diverse as Voltaire, Jefferson, Marx, Spencer, Durkeim,
Weber and Freud all predicted that the advent of industrial society
would mark the decline of religious b
Wrote novels including Ashwak (Thorns) and helped to publicize liberal
Egyptian novelist Naguib Mahfouz.
1939- became an administrator in the Egyptian Ministry of Education
1948- Qutb sent to U.S. on scholarship to study educational system
and possibly be
Identity, Continuity & Certainty
Why did Muslims respond to cultural threat by so actively turning
Hoffman (1995) states that Islamic fundamentalism is a revolt of
young people who are caught between a traditional past and a higher
Despite formation of Islamic organizations in 1920s onwards
1970s is era when popular Islamic social movements and widespread
support for their programs arose:
Major Cause: Arab defeat by Israel in the Six-day war (1967) and
Bahrain: Shouting in the Dark
Population: 22 million
One-party Baathist state.
Authoritarian rule since 1970
Other Muslims (Alawites, Ismailis, Druze, other 16%)
Government is Sunni (also 30% of population is Sunni)
Majority= Shia (70%)
Ruled by Al-Khalifa family since 1783.
King is supreme authority + members of ruling family hold main
political and military posts.
Long-running tensions between Bahrain's
Population: 23 million
One of the poorest countries in the Arab world.
At 3%, the country has one of the highest population growth rates
globally, with the population expected to double in 23 years to around
Has severe water shortages.
ALI ABDULLAH SALEH
Human rights abuses carried out by him and his allies
Public rallies in Sana'a against President Saleh - inspired by similar
demonstrations in Tunisia and Egypt - slowly built momentum starting
in late January 2011.
By the following mon
Sense of nationhood constantly being formed/reformed
Notions on nationhood reflect changing conditions and selfconceptions.
Exclude complete separation
Exclude complete integration
Ethnically, linguistically, culturally, p