.was price for stability and security.
Increased economic disparities
By 2010, poverty levels reached:
41.8% in Yemen
22.6% in Algeria
16.7% in Egypt
14.2% in Jordan
Mismanagement of resources especially water (Syr
RELIGION AND REVIVAL
ISLAM IN A NUTSHELL
THE ISLAMIC REVIVAL
-all suffer from major political turmoil today.
Too soon to call changes resulting from Arab Spring a revolution?
Whats a better way to frame the uprisings?
When European powers divided the continent between them, they
created the borders which are, for the most part agreed upon today.
MOROCCO AND TUNISIA AS PROTECTORATES
Protectorates = different legal colonial designation meant that the
Human Rights, Civil Rights and Media
Syria's poor human rights record was worsening.
The Syrian Human Rights Committee declared 2006 a new low for
human rights since Bashar Al-Assad became President.
Security forces have carried out widespread arrests of
Did not advocate violent political action as the means toward
achieving political goals.
MB initially adhered to model of political activism combined with
Islamic charity work
A military wing was later created and members of the brotherhood
Wanted removal of corrupt local officials.
Dissent is nominal or not tolerated.
Media and elections are government-controlled.
Economic stagnation (Foreign investment is minimal )
Home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Ku
State-led development + free access to education produced rapid, but
unsustainable growth, raising aspirations for upward mobility based upon
higher education in the 1950s and 1960s.
Subsequent growth reversal in the region, particularly in the 1980s,
THE THREE Cs of COLONIALISM
As was true of all European empires at the time, the French in North
Africa followed a program based upon the three Cs of colonialism:
Catholic and Protestant missionary societies mostl
SOURCES OF DISCONTENT
HALF OF POPULATION LIVING ON LESS THAN $2.00 A DAY
MUBARAK FAMILY FORTUNE ESTIMATED BETWEEN $40-$70
Also unpopular were:
Egypts role in the U.S.-led war on terror
Religious belief has been the building block of many countries.
Many European countries to this day see themselves as essentially
Catholic or Protestant.
Many Middle Eastern countries see themselves as Sunni Muslim or