Spin Quantum Number,
This quantum number refers to the two possible orientations of the
spin axis of an electron.
It may have a value of either +1/2 or -1/2.
Which of the following are permissible sets of quantum numbers?
n = 4, l = 4, ml = 0, ms =
n = 3
Transitions Between Energy Levels
An electron can change energy levels by absorbing energy to move
to a higher energy level or by emitting energy to move to a lower
For a hydrogen electron, the energy change is given by
The energy of the emi
The concentric circles represent successive shells.
Figure B shows the probability of finding the electron at various
distances from the nucleus. The highest probability (most likely)
distance is at 50 pm.
According to quantum mechanics, e
Quantum Numbers and Atomic Orbitals
Define atomic orbital.
Define each of the quantum numbers for an atomic
State the rules for the allowed values for each quantum
Apply the rules for quantum numbers.
Describe the shapes of s, p, and d or
Quantum Effects and Photons
State Plancks quantization of vibrational energy.
Define Plancks constant and photon.
Describe the photoelectric effect.
Calculate the energy of a photon from its frequency or
The Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
The branch of physics that mathematically describes the wave
properties of submicroscopic particles is called quantum mechanics
or wave mechanics.
Quantum mechanics alters how we think about the motion of
In 1927, Werner Heise
Periodicity of the Elements
You learned how the periodic table can be explained by the
periodicity of the ground-state configurations of the elements. Now
we will look at various aspects of the periodicity of the elements.
5. Mendeleevs Predictions from t
The bluegreen line of the hydrogen atom spectrum has a
wavelength of 486 nm. What is the energy of a photon of this light?
In the early 1900s, the atom was understood to consist of a positive
nucleus around which electrons move (Rutherfords model).
The range of frequencies and wavelengths of electromagnetic
radiation is called the electromagnetic spectrum.
One property of waves is that they can be diffractedthat is, they
spread out when they encounter an obstacle about the s
Periodicity of the Elements
5. Mendeleevs Predictions from the Periodic Table
Describe how Mendeleev predicted the properties of undiscovered
Some Periodic Properties
State the periodic law.
State the general periodic trends in s
Light Waves, Photons, and the Bohr Theory
To understand the formation of chemical bonds, you need to know
something about the electronic structure of atoms. Because light
gives us information about this structure, we begin by discussing the
nature of ligh
Angular Momentum Quantum Number
This quantum number distinguishes orbitals of a given n (shell)
having different shapes.
It can have values from 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . to a maximum of (n 1).
For a given n, there will be n different values of l, or n types of