A solution is made up of eugenol, C10H12O2, in diethyl ether (ether).
If the solution is 0.575 m eugenol in ether, what are the freezing point
and the boiling point of the solution? The freezing point and the
boiling point of pure ether are 116.3C
The Equilibrium Constant
Define equilibrium-constant expression and equilibrium
State the law of mass action.
Write equilibrium-constant expressions.
Describe the kinetics argument for the approach to chemical
Reaction Quotient, Q
The reaction quotient has the same form as the equilibrium constant,
but uses initial concentrations for its value.
When Kc > Q, the reaction proceeds to the right.
When Kc < Q, the reaction proceeds to the left.
When Kc = Q, the reac
In general, the value of Kp is different from that of Kc.
We will explore this relationship on the next slides. Recall the ideal
gas law and the relationship between pressure and molarity of a gas:
For catalytic methanation,
CO(g) + 3
Molarity is the moles of solute per liter of solution. It is abbreviated
Mass percentage of solute is the percentage by mass of solute in a
An experiment calls for 36.0 g of a 5.00% aqueous solution of
potassium bromide. Describe
Write the Kc expression for the following reaction:
H2O(g) + C(s) CO(g) + H2(g)
aA + bB cC + dD; K1
When the reaction is reversed:
cC + dD aA + bB; K2
The equilibrium constant expression is inverted:
aA + bB cC + dD; K1
If an equilibrium mixture at 25C contains 0.040 M N2 and 0.010 M
O2, what is the concentration of NO in this mixture? The equilibrium
constant at 25C is
When the initial concentration and the value of Kc are known, we
A solution contains 8.89 10-3 mole fraction of I2 dissolved in 0.9911
mole fraction of CH2Cl2 (methylene chloride). What is the molality of I 2
in this solution?
Converting between molality and molarity requires knowing the
density of the solu
To establish an equilibrium, the gaseous solvent will condense in the
more concentrated solution until the vapor pressures and
concentrations are equal.
Note that vapor-pressure lowering is directly proportional to the solute
Other detergent molecules are classified as cationics, because they
have a positive charge at the hydrophilic end.
Many cationic detergents also have germicidal properties and are
used in hospital disinfectants and in mouthwashes.
Contents and Con
Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations
Obtain one equilibrium concentration given the others.
Solve an equilibrium problem (involving a linear equation in x).
Solve an equilibrium problem (involving a quadratic equation in
Changing the Reacti
A colloid in which the dispersed phase consists of micelles is called
an association colloid.
Soap consists of compounds such as sodium stearate. Sodium
stearate is an example of a molecule with hydrophobic and