Unit Cells
The crystal structure of ionic solids is complicated by the fact that we
need to give both cations and anions positions within the crystal
structure.
We will examine the crystal structure o
Types of Solids
Solids can also be described as either crystalline or amorphous.
A crystalline solid is composed of one or more crystals with a welldefined ordered structure in three dimensions.
An am
Van der Waals Equation
An equation that is similar to the ideal gas law, but which includes two
constants, a and b, to account for deviations from ideal behavior.
The term V becomes (V nb).
The term P
Real Gases
a.
Explain how and why a real gas is different from an ideal gas.
b.
Use the van der Waals equation.
Gases differ from liquids and solids:
They are compressible.
Pressure, volume, temperatu
Diffusion
The process whereby a gas spreads out through another gas to
occupy the space uniformly.
Below NH3 diffuses through air. The indicator paper tracks its
progress.
Effusion
The process by whic
Covalent Network Solid
A covalent network solid consists of atoms. These atoms are held
together in large chains or networks by covalent bonds.
Carbon exists as a covalent network solid in both the gr
Boiling Points
The boiling points for Group IVA, VA, and VIIA hydrides are graphed
to the right.
Group IVA hydrides follow the expected pattern. In Group VA, NH 3
does not. Likewise, in Group VIIA, HF
Boyles Law
The volume of a sample of gas at constant temperature varies
inversely with the applied pressure.
The mathematical relationship:
In equation form:
A volume of oxygen gas occupies 38.7 mL at
Coordination
Ruby is one example. It is primarily Al2O3, but some Al3+ ions are
replaced with Cr3+ ions, giving the red color.
We now look in more detail at the structures of several solids of
differe
Colligative Properties
4. Ways of Expressing Concentration
a.
Define colligative property.
b.
Define molarity.
c.
Define mass percentage of solute.
d.
Perform calculations with the mass percentage of
Avogadros Law
Equal volumes of any two gases at the same temperature and
pressure contain the same number of molecules.
Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)
The reference condition for gases, chose