The crystal structure of ionic solids is complicated by the fact that we
need to give both cations and anions positions within the crystal
We will examine the crystal structure of three compounds with the
general formula MX: CsCl, Na
Types of Solids
Solids can also be described as either crystalline or amorphous.
A crystalline solid is composed of one or more crystals with a welldefined ordered structure in three dimensions.
An amorphous solid has a disordered structure and lacks a we
Van der Waals Equation
An equation that is similar to the ideal gas law, but which includes two
constants, a and b, to account for deviations from ideal behavior.
The term V becomes (V nb).
The term P becomes (P + n2a/V2).
Values for a and b are found in
Explain how and why a real gas is different from an ideal gas.
Use the van der Waals equation.
Gases differ from liquids and solids:
They are compressible.
Pressure, volume, temperature, and amount are related.
The force exert
The process whereby a gas spreads out through another gas to
occupy the space uniformly.
Below NH3 diffuses through air. The indicator paper tracks its
The process by which a gas flows through a small hole in a container.
Covalent Network Solid
A covalent network solid consists of atoms. These atoms are held
together in large chains or networks by covalent bonds.
Carbon exists as a covalent network solid in both the graphite and
Physical properties such as m
The boiling points for Group IVA, VA, and VIIA hydrides are graphed
to the right.
Group IVA hydrides follow the expected pattern. In Group VA, NH 3
does not. Likewise, in Group VIIA, HF does not.
Identify the intermolecular forces that you
The volume of a sample of gas at constant temperature varies
inversely with the applied pressure.
The mathematical relationship:
In equation form:
A volume of oxygen gas occupies 38.7 mL at 751 mmHg and 21C.
What is the volume if the pressure c
Ruby is one example. It is primarily Al2O3, but some Al3+ ions are
replaced with Cr3+ ions, giving the red color.
We now look in more detail at the structures of several solids of
different types: molecular, metallic, ionic, and covalent netw
4. Ways of Expressing Concentration
Define colligative property.
Define mass percentage of solute.
Perform calculations with the mass percentage of a solute.
Calculate the molality
Equal volumes of any two gases at the same temperature and
pressure contain the same number of molecules.
Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)
The reference condition for gases, chosen by convention to be
exactly 0C and 1 atm pressure.