Morbidity and Mortality: hypertensive disorders contribute significantly to the
maternal and infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Complications associated
with hypertensive disorders include placental abruption, acute respiratory distress
Diagnosis of Pregnancy: Many women come to the first prenatal visit after
a positive home pregnancy test; however, the clinical diagnosis of pregnancy
before the second missed period is difficult in some women.
Signs and Symptoms: The physical cues of pre
Nutrient Needs Before Conception: A healthful diet before conception is
the best way to ensure that adequate nutrients are available for the developing fetus. Neural tube defects are more common in infants of women with
poor folic acid intake. Folic acid
Conception: Sequential process including ovulation, fertilization, and implantation in the uterus.
Ovum: At ovulation the ovum is released from the ruptured ovarian
follicle. High estrogen levels increase the motility of the uterine tubes
so their cilia a
Gravidity and Parity: Read terms on page 289. The first digit represents
the number of pregnancies the woman has had, icluding he present one and
parity is the number of pregnancies hat have reached 20 or more weeks of
gestation before the birth.
Factors Affecting Labor: At least five factors affect the process of labor and birth. These
are remembered as the five Ps: passenger (fetus and placenta), passageway (birth canal),
powers (contractions), position of the mother, and psychologic response.
Chapter 33 Labor and Birth Complications
Dysfunctional labor (Dystocia)
Dysfunctional labor (dystocia)- long, difficult, or abnormal labor caused by various
conditions associated with the five factors affecting labor.
Most common indication for c/s
Chapter 32: Mental Health Disorders and Substance Abuse in Pregnancy
Women who have serious mental health disorders may be engaging in sexual activities
that can result in pregnancy
Mood disorders: disorders that have as their dominant feature a disturban
Chapter 28: Antepartum Hemorrhagic Disorders
Early pregnancy bleeding:
o Normal causes: miscarriage, premature dilation of the cervix, ectopic pregnancy,
and hydatidiform mole
Miscarriage (spontaneous abortion): loss of pregnancy before 20 weeks
Chapter 26: Assessment for Risk Factors in Pregnancy
High risk pregnancy: on in which the life or health of the mother 1or fetus is jeopardized
by a disorder coincidental with or unique to pregnancy
o UPI: the gradual decline in delivery of needed substan