Type III decreased hepatic remnant clearance (due to decreased
apoE) which causes xanthomas, hypercholesterolemia, and
Type IV increased VLDL associated with glucose intolerance and
hyperinsulinemia which is associated with type-II diabe
Beta Oxidation Questions
How are fatty acids mobilized from adipose tissue? What hormones and enzymes are
Activated by HSTL and done by glucagon and epinephrine. ATP comes in and activates
adenylate cyclase when epinephrine and glucagon levels
What does proof mean with respect of alcohol?
Half of the proof is how much actual alcohol is in the bottle.
What is the alcohol content of a serving of wine, beer, or hard liquor?
1.5 fl oz. of hard liquor, 12 ounce beer, and 5 fl oz.
Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) measures weight loss without trying
and if so how much, as well has if they have a decreased appetite.
Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) measures BMI, %
unplanned weight loss i
QUESTION: What is the evidence that moderate consumption of red wine decreases
the risk for cardiovascular disease?
Cardiovascular disease is responsible for roughly 40% of all deaths in the United
States each ye
Secretin stimulated by acid in the duodenum and it causes the
pancreas to secrete bicarbonate to neutralize the acid; it also
decreases motility and gastrin
Glucagonlike peptide I secreted in the ileum and colon and it
inhibits gastric motility and secr
Glucagon and Epinephrine increases cAMP increase glycogen
phosphorylase and decreases glycogen synthase (promotes the breakdown
o Glycogen Diseases
Type O glycogen synthase deficiency
Episodes of hypoglycemia cant make glycogen in the liver
Q&A: Toxic effects of sugar: should we be afraid of fructose?
there is currently no evidence to support the hypothesis that HFCS makes a significant
contribution to metabolic disease independently of the rise in total fructose consumption.
Iron and calcium deficiency
o If the duodenum is removed
o NSAIDS can lead to breakdown of stomach wall and cause
o Need vitamin D and calcium deficiency
Fat-soluble vitamin deficiency
o Duodenal switch or s
What is glycogen composed of?
Glucose molecules bond together by alpha-1,4 bonds and when branched they are linked
together by alpha-1,6 bonds
How much glycogen do we store? Where are the major storage sites for glycogen?
In the l