DESIGN AND ANALYSIS
OF CLINICAL TRIALS
Types of Clinical Research
1. Case Reports
Case Control/Retrospective (lung cancer)
Cross Sectional (WESDR) Beaver Dam
Prospective (Framington) WESDR-II
in clinical trials
Slides for lecture 2.
Definition ETHICS: norms for conduct that distinguish between
acceptable and unacceptable behavior.
Ethics in research: the ethics of the planning, conduct, and reporting
What is the question?
The planning of a clinical trial depends on the question that the
Stating the question clearly and in advance encourages proper design
and enhances the credibility of the findings.
Each clinical trial must
The sample size of the study should be considered early.
In clinical research during the planning stage of a CT the following
questions are of particular to investigators
1. How many subjects are needed in order to have a desire
Homework 5, due: 26 MAY 2017
1. (40 points) Since 2000, National Institute of Health (NIH) require education on
protection of human research participants for all investigators who submit NIH
applications for grants or proposals for contracts or re
AN INTRODUCTION TO CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS
The history of Biochemistry to a large extent parallels the history of the
resolution and isolation of substances from cellular sources. However carefully
the cellular organization is disrupted, a chemical mixtur
PHYSICAL and PREPARATIVE TECHNIQUES
(FILTRATION, AMMONIUM SULFATE PRECIPITATION, DIALYSIS)
Approaches to Biochemical Investigations
In order to study any series of interrelated processes within a system, it is normally
necessary to study the component par
CHAPTER 2 - The matrix of life: Weak interactions
in an aqueous environment.
2.1 Covalent bonds and non-covalent bonds.
A covalent chemical bond is formed when two atoms (each with an
unpaired electron in its valence orbital or shell, around its nucleus)
Electrophoresis involves the movement of a charged particle (ion) in an
electric field. It is one of the most effective methods for the separation,
isolation and determination of size and purity. The basic requirement of
Nucleic acids are the central molecules of life. They occur in all
living organisms. They are responsible for storage and
transmission of genetic information. Nucleic acids are also
responsible for the translation of the genetic information
CHAPTER 3 - AMINO ACIDS
Amino acids are organic acids containing an amine group. Only 20
amino acids are used to make proteins. Nineteen of the 20 amino
acids have the general structure shown in Figure 1. The exception to
this is proline (Figure 1).
Chapter 6 - Lipids.
1. Major roles of biological lipids
Biological molecules that are insoluble in aqueous solutions and
soluble in organic solvents are classified as lipids. The lipids of
physiological importance for humans have the following major
CHAPTER 1 - Introduction to Biochemistry
Biochemistry is not difficult ! If you talk to the students in the
years ahead of you in the University, most of them will tell you
that Biochemistry is a difficult subject. It is not!
The things that
Chapter 4 - Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are carbon compounds that contain large
quantities of hydroxyl groups. Many have the empirical formula
(CH2O)n, which originally suggested that they were hydrates of
carbon. As a group they are of pa
Synthesis of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid)
Aspirin is a medicine that relieves pain and reduces fever. It is used to relieve
many kinds of minor aches such as toothaches, muscle pain, the joint pain from
arthritis, and aches associated with colds and flu
Theory: Synthesis of an alkyl halide from an alcohol
Alkyl halides belong to the class of compounds where a halogen atom or atoms
are bound to an sp orbital of an alkyl group. They are also called haloalkanes or
halogenoalkanes, the compound is composed o