284
9 The problem of the interpretation of quantum theory
entire debate a mere rearguard action. All the same my reaction was perhaps
unjust. My respect for Einstein, as I have already said in the preface of this
book, has grown from decade to decade. His

278
9 The problem of the interpretation of quantum theory
new closed theories are like continents: they are discovered and cannot be
produced at will.
The present book originated from a search in both of these directions.
The philosophical broadening of t

266
9 The problem of the interpretation of quantum theory
which one may disregard, in a certain approximation, the noncommutativity.
But we do not follow Neumanns leveling assumption (Sect. 9.1h) that every
bounded self-adjoint operator represents a permi

260
9 The problem of the interpretation of quantum theory
Einstein tried, up to the Solvay Congress of 1930, to find internal contradictions in quantum mechanics. He did this mainly by inventing thought
experiments in which quantities were measurable whic

248
9 The problem of the interpretation of quantum theory
particle conforms to the laws of probability, but the probability itself is propagated in accordance with the law of causality (Jammer, p. 40). Orthodox
quantum theory followed him there.
Neverthel

References
351
Weizs
acker, C. F. v. (1931). Ortsbestimmung eines Elektrons durch ein Mikroskop.
Z. Physik, 70:114130.
Weizs
acker, C. F. v. (1934). Nachwort zu einer Arbeit von K. Popper (1934). Naturwiss., 22:808.
Weizs
acker, C. F. v. (1939). Der zweit

12.4 Metaphysics
345
ical models of such experiences have already been seriously considered. For
it is not easy to see what one there must search for. There are many indications that, e.g., the broadly based parapsychological investigations pursue
a less

8.5 Evolution as growth of potential information
219
In biology or in sociology, the idea of evolution is, on the contrary, closely
associated with an increase in organization giving rise to the creation of more
and more complex structures. (p. 287)
Are t

9.3 Paradoxes and alternatives
293
can be made, hence again N dierent values of pk can be measured.20 Then
there are N N distinguishable quantum states of the object. The empirical
determination of one of them has then the information content of n 2n bits

9.1 About the history of the interpretation
257
of phenomenon. Time should not be introduced primarily mathematically as a
continuum of numbers but in the grouping of present, past, and future which
forms the basis of our experience. Irreversibility is ex

216
8 Information and evolution
information Ik measures the newsworthiness of the event xk if a decision
produces just this value xk . An event that has occurred is the less newsworthy,
the more likely it was before; if it occurred with certainty, one wil

8.2 What is information?
213
Information is one of the fundamental concepts of modern science. Formally we ask for an explicit definition of this concept, factually about the
essence of what it represents. Giving a precise definition of a fundamental
conc

9.1 About the history of the interpretation
251
miracleand appears to me as a miracle even today. This is the highest form
of musicality in the sphere of thought (See Sect. 2.11a).
It was given to Heisenberg and not Bohr to find the solid ground on
which

228
8 Information and evolution
system is to be interpreted. From the original Kant-Laplace nebula where
hydrodynamic and chemical processes occur, there ultimately emerge separate
planets, acting upon one another solely via gravitaiton; the stability the

9.1 About the history of the interpretation
245
is a complete alternative, if we only interpret both concepts broadly enough.
Particles or bodies are localized objects; fields, especially waves, are states
which in principle extend over all space. Accordi

10
The stream of information
10.1 The quest for substance
Sinnend der Weise. . .
Sucht den ruhenden Pol in der Erscheinungen Flucht.
Schiller, Der Spaziergang
Transience is a basic human experience.
What was the stability of Egyptian art striving for if n

348
References
Borges, J. L. (1970). S
amtliche Erz
ahlungen. Hanser, Munich.
Born, M. (1924). Uber
Quantenmechanik. Z. Phys., 26:379395.
Born, M. (1925). Vorlesungen u
ber Atommechanik. Springer, Berlin.
Born, M. (1926). Quantenmechanik der Stovorg
ange.

222
8 Information and evolution
for the future but not asserted about the past. For the Second Law the interpretation is familiar that increasing entropy is the occurrence of the probable.
For the development of forms one must consider that a multiplicity

12
In the language of philosophers
12.1 Exposition
This chapter will, as a supplement, outline a sketch of the philosophy already
contained in the reconstruction1 of physics.
Philosophy as an afterthought is already a philosophical program. In its
classic

306
10 The stream of information
one must expect that statistically the tensor rank and thus the potential
information of the state regarding measurements defined in coordinate space
will increase. For somewhat more complicated situations which, due to a

254
9 The problem of the interpretation of quantum theory
The question then was from which classical theory one ought to start. For
matter one started with classical point mechanics and obtained through quantization Schr
odingers wave mechanics in configu

9.2 The semantic consistency of quantum theory
263
the dual rule for the change of .13 No contradiction arises if we follow these
simple arguments. But we can now see that the name state for is misleading. is a catalog of knowledge that follows from one o

234
8 Information and evolution
More recent investigations of the authors show how large the domain of
biological and societal phenomena is that can be described by these qualitative
concepts.
8.7 Biological preliminaries to logic
8.7.1 Methodological
Thi

11.4 Comprehensive present
327
11.4 Comprehensive present
The two previous sections are in a way mirror images of each other. The thesis
of the facticity of the future representshypotheticallythe present in the
usual form of the past. The thesis of the po

7.4 Cosmology and the theory of relativity
209
then for us one million astronauts must arrive nearly simultaneously from
the universe and depart again. Thereby initially for the astronaut himself
the reality of the temporal sequence is established. To us,

300
10 The stream of information
understood mass as the quantitative expression of the amount of matter. The
masses of the bodies and point masses are therefore treated as constants in
the basic equations. The success justifies the approach. The importanc

324
11 Beyond quantum theory
sacrifice of the basic concept of facticity. We present this emerging theory of
events as a thesis, but in the guise of a fairy tale.
An event in the strict sense is a presentic event, something that is happening here and now.

10.2 The stream of information in quantum theory
303
excess information in the first answer is simply the information contained in
the concept of a living being (p. 353).6
Both answers thus explain meaningful but dierent concepts of information needed in

9.2 The semantic consistency of quantum theory
275
situation which Z describes as a classical (irreversible) probability distribution
for the results of measurement of the observable M of X2 by means of Y s
body. This probability distribution will be redu

272
9 The problem of the interpretation of quantum theory
Now we try to reduce 2 to 1. How can one actually observe an observable? We assert that we can do so by making it the Hamiltonian operator of
the interaction between object and measurement instrume

9.3 Paradoxes and alternatives
287
We are interested here in the starting point, the reality criterion. We have
already used it above under the title of the reality assumption. It is characteristic of its logical structure that it does not define the conc

9.2 The semantic consistency of quantum theory
269
The orthodox Copenhagen interpretation then says that quantum theory
describes what the observer may know but it does not describe the observer
itself. Bohr and Heisenberg have expressed this on several o

8.7 Biological preliminaries to logic
237
it can still react at all. Illness could thus be defined as false health. Viewed
in Darwinian terms, the concept false denotes diminished survivability, i.e.,
loss of adaptability. Speaking platonically: in a worl