Kind of leadership
Strictly approach one man above all
Every decision must be obeyed
Decision making steps done by particip
How and Why Do Countries Regulate Trade? (HA)
Have you ever tried to mail a package to another country at the post office? If so, you probably had to fill out a customs declaration. It
asked you to list the items you were sending and to indicate whether t
The World Trade Organization.
.In brief, the World Trade Organization (WTO)
is the only international organization dealing with
the global rules of trade between nations.
Its main function is to ensure that trade flows as
smoothly, predictably and freely
T HE WTO, ESTABLISHED IN 1995, ADMINIS-
TERS THE TRADE AGREEMENTS NEGOTIATED
luv the members, in particular the General Agree
7 mm! on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the General
Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), and the
Trade-Related Aspects of Intellect
Theory of Economic Integration
Preferential Trade Agreements and the
Multilateral Trade System
Dr Katarzyna ledziewska
The stages of economic integration
Dr Katarzyna ledziewska
4 SEPTEMBER 2014
THE WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION:
NEW ISSUES, NEW CHALLENGES
Pascal Lamy | Honorary president of Notre Europe Jacques Delors Institute
and former WTO director general
1. The transformation of international trade
The Theory of Economic
Integration: An Introduction
Federalists; (unctionalists, and neo(unctionalists in the postwar period were largely concerned with the po/tical results o( integration,
even if some o( them (i.e., most federalistsand fu
PRINCETON STUDIES IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCE NO. 12
The Evolution of the International
Historical Reappraisal and
INTERNATIONAL FINANCE SECTION
DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS
PRINCETON UNIVERSITY. 1964
MGT491 - QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH FOR MANAGEMENT
Question: Validity and Reliability are the two terms used in quantitative analysis. Discuss both the
concepts in detail? Also define different types of Validity and reliability discussed in lectur
Explain some practical concepts of business economics used by managers.
1. Informed and rational decision making.
A manager should be well informed because he needs to make the right decisions at right time.
Decision making is the heart of managem
A Pakistani company has been searching for the best raw material. It has found with
the best specifications raw material on a suppliers company website that is China based.
Pakistani company has to contact with Chinese company on phone. You, as
Question-1: What are Business-Level Strategies? Explain when and how they are used?
Business-Level Strategy: An organization's core competencies should be focused on satisfying
customer needs or preferences in order to achieve above average returns. This
Question: Explain the difference between downsizing and reengineering. Give examples of three
organizations that are doing downsizing for their survival.
Downsizing: By definition, Downsizing refers to the permanent reduction of a company's
Q: Define and explain needs, wants and demands. Describe how they are different from each
other. Give real life examples.
Needs, Wants, and Demands are a part of basic marketing principles. Though they are 3 simple
words, they hold a very com
Question: Differentiate between line filling and line stretching. Provide examples from the
products that exist in the Pakistani Market.
1. Product line filling means the addition of more items in the current line of existing
products that a company is de
MGT-495 Transferable skills development
(Total Marks 15)
Background: Sara and Ali have been working alongside one another for many years at the local
newspaper. As their existing manager leaves the company, Ali is promoted, but still
Leader makes decisions
and announces them to
Style saves time.
Decision is usually
clear and final.
Leader is in control.
Question: What are the shortcomings of GDP?
Measuring GDP is complicated but at its most basic, the calculation can be done in one of two
ways: either by adding up what everyone earned in a year (income approach), or by adding up
what everyone spent (expe
Question-1: What are the Forms of Business Organizations? Explain.
Answer: There are three types of Business Organizations.
1. Sole Proprietorship: The simplest and most numerous form of Business, Holding by a single
person/Owner, Who is ultimate responsi
Explain the following concepts
(Total marks: 10)
Briefly, define the research process and steps involved in it.
Research is more of an art rather than a science. It is a process that requires a lot of patience and
different approaches. There is no simple
Question: How can a Company use Excess Cash Balances efficiently?
We can use excess cash balance efficiently by keeping in mind the following points:
Excess cash balance has three disadvantages from which we can plan how to use excess cash