Managerial Auditing Journal
The impact of government and foreign affiliate influence on corporate social reporting:
The case of Malaysia
Azlan Amran S. Susela Devi
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BUS560: COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE
RESEARCH
Rehan Ally
Adapted slides from Prof Chris Jones
Some Questions
Why did McDonalds decide to compete
against Starbucks on selling coffee?
What went so badly wrong with Nokia?
What are the two key success factors
Managerial Auditing Journal
Corporate social responsibility disclosure and its relation on institutional ownership:
Evidence from public listed companies in Malaysia
Mustaruddin Saleh Norhayah Zulkifli Rusnah Muhamad
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Lecture
3:
Second level
Competitor Intelligence
Third level
Fourth level
BUS560
Intelligence Research
FifthCompetitive
level
Rehan Ally
Slides adapted from: Prof Chris Jones
3/22/17
1
LANDSCAPE MANUAL
AND STANDARD PLANS
INTRODUCTION
The City of Irvine desires to have landscaped open spaces designed with the following goals in
mind:
1. Landscaped open spaces should project a positive image and establish a permanent character
for the Cit
1,2. Consistency principle, full-disclosure principle (?)
consistency
reducing balance method depreciation
of van straight line method depreciation of
premises
depreciation violate
consistency principle full disclosure principle
d data violate
3.
Economic
Team C (T08)
The basic tools of
finance
Team members:
Chan Chun Wai Will
Chan Tsz Chin Erica
Yeung Wing Shan Konnie
Li Tsz Wai Edward
Tse Cheuk Hang Teddy
Pang Tsz Yan Esther
Q1 :What benefit do people get from the market for
insurance?
The bene
Economic
Team C
The tool of finance
Team members:
Chan Chun Wai Will
Chan Tsz Chin Erica
Yeung Wing Shan Konnie
Li Tsz Wai Edward
Tse Cheuk Hang Teddy
Pang Tsz Yan Esther
Q1 :What benefit do people get from the market for
insurance?
The benefit of purcha
3.1 Formal systems
25
to write down in a finite number of steps that follow the rules of the game
for .
If then there is a list of strings that can be written down in the game,
each of which is written down according to one of the three rules, the last on
42
Deductions in posets
We therefore have a system of formal proof, in fact one separate system for
each set of individuals X. We have been able to write down and deduce facts
like a b and a b from a set of assumptions , irrespective of whether our
assump
60
Boolean algebras
Proof Exercise, to be done in a similar way. Or use the previous result and
Proposition 5.22 on Uniqueness of Complements below, where it is shown that
x = x in any boolean algebra B.
The next proposition is often useful. It says that
54
Deductions in posets
The following exercise gives a family of examples that are right-orderable.
In attempting it, it may be helpful to know that any set such as has a wellorder, i.e. a linear order in which every non-empty subset has a least element.
2.1 Introduction to order
13
There will be several occasions throughout this book where we will be interested in the notion of a maximal element in a poset. This is defined next.
Definition 2.7 If X is a poset and x X, we say that x is a maximal element o
6
Propositional logic
6.1 A system for proof about propositions
We are going to develop a formal system for proofs about boolean algebras,
just as in a previous chapter we developed one for posets. It will also be rich
enough to simulate proofs in the sys
6.1 A system for proof about propositions
67
them. However, they are not so difficult to learn, especially when you realise
they all come in pairs, introduction and elimination, for each main symbol.
The rules, if you read them carefully, should all be fo
4.3 Linearly ordering algebraic structures*
51
orderable. (For completeness, use a Zorns Lemma argument similar to that in
Exercise 4.21.)
The next stage is to simplify this proof system so that we can analyse it
algebraically. Using the group operation w
3
Formal systems
3.1 Formal systems
Formal systems are kinds of mathematical games with strings of symbols and
precise rules. They mimic the idea of a proof. This chapter introduces formal systems through an example that turns out to be closely connected
22
Posets and maximal elements
assume otherwise. Then the least element of C1 and the least element of C2
must both be u(), so C1 and C2 agree on their least element.
Suppose to start with that there is x C1 which is not in C2 . Then there
is a least such
2.3 Zorns Lemma and the Axiom of Choice*
21
form of Zorns Lemma does need the Axiom of Choice, as the elements of the
poset X may not be so conveniently listed as those of a countable set are.
Most published proofs of Zorns Lemma are quite short but requi
5
Boolean algebras
5.1 Boolean algebras
Partially ordered and linearly ordered sets may be interesting but they are not
really logic in the usual sense of the word: they do not represent logical statements nor do they model logical operations such as not,
3.1 Formal systems
27
Proof By induction on the number of steps in a formal derivation. We start
by assuming that we have a formal derivation of from of length n + 1 and
inductively assume that whenever has a derivation from of length n then
there is a de
3.1 Formal systems
29
or to an initial segment of . There must be such a as 1 . If is in
0 we are done; otherwise was derived from strings 0 and 1 in 1 by the
Shortening Rule, and the length of is strictly less than n as the Shortening
Rule is a string-sh
2.3 Zorns Lemma and the Axiom of Choice*
23
It may be interesting to learn that Zorns Lemma directly implies Konigs
Lemma. I am not sure how edifying this particular argument is, although it
does apply in the most general case discussed in the previous ch
3.3 Post systems and computability*
37
Post systems, like the vast majority of other formal systems on finite alphabets, are partially computable. A computer program can be written to check
that a formal derivation does indeed follow all the rules precise
3.1 Formal systems
31
contains . This will show that ! , and hence give the contrapositive of the
required theorem.
Let X be the set of all supersets such that , and order X by
normal inclusion, . This makes X into a poset, and it has the Zorn property.
!
2.2 Examples and exercises
17
Proposition 2.20 Let X be a non-empty poset of subsets A S having some
property (A), where the order relation on X is , i.e.
X = cfw_A S : (A) .
Suppose also that the property (A) defining X is such that
if (A) is false then
66
Propositional logic
Formal proof
(a b)
a
a
a
b
( a b)
b
(a b)
(1) Assumption
(2) -Elimination
(3)
(4)
Assumption
Contradiction
(5) RAA
(6) -Elimination
(7) Given, from
(8) -Elimination
(9) Contradiction
(10)
RAA
Example 6.5 Let X = cfw_a, b. Then (a b
18
Posets and maximal elements
Exercise 2.24 Let X be a non-empty set with a preorder !. Define an equivalence relation on X by x y if and only if x ! y and y ! x. (You have to
prove this is an equivalence relation.) Let X/ denote the set of equivalence
c
5.1 Boolean algebras
57
special elements denoted , (also sometimes denoted 0, 1, or F, T , respectively) and having a function X X called complementation or negation written (or or c ) such that:
(i) is the minimum element of X and is the maximum element