A transmission medium can be broadly defined
as anything that can information from a source
to a destination.
For example the transmission medium for two
people having dinner conversation is the a
In real life links have limited bandwidths.
Wise use of bandwidths has been, and will be,
among the main challenges of electronic
Several low-bandwidth channel
Data and Signals
Signals travel through transmission media, which
are not perfect.
The imperfection causes signal impairment.
This means that the signal at the beginning of
the medium is not the
Data and Signals
Physical layer is responsible to perform various
One of its major functions is to move data in form of
electromagnetic signals across a transmission
Data must be transformed to e
A Network is a combination of hardware and software
that sends data from one location to another.
Hardware consists of the physical equipment that
carriers signal from one point of the network to an
For digital transmission low-pass channel is
Analog transmission is the only choice for bandpass channel.
Converting digital data to a band-pass analog
signal is traditionally known as digital-to-a
The term telecommunication means communication
at a distance.
The word data refers to information presented in
whatever form is agreed upon by the parties creating
and using the data.
Data communications a
The layers in the TCP/IP protocol do not exactly match
those in the OSI model (as it was developed prior to the
The original TCP/IP protocol suite was defined as
having four lay
Multiplexing and Spreading
Multiplexing combines signals from several
sources to achieve bandwidth efficiency; the
available bandwidth of the link is divided
between the sources.
In spread spe
Analog-to-analog conversion is also known as
It the representation of the analog information
(data, message) by an analog signal
It is required if the medium is ban