Emerson College of Business and Commerce, Abbottabad
Account
ACCOUNTING BS4317

Fall 2016
BacktoBack Stemplots
Boys
Girls
7
1
146
458
122289
3479
258
13
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
268
3446689
436
4
The backtoback stemplots are another graphic option for comparing data from two groups. The
center of a backtoback stemplot consists of a column of st
Emerson College of Business and Commerce, Abbottabad
Account
ACCOUNTING BS4317

Fall 2016
Frequency vs. Cumulative Frequency
In a data set, the cumulative frequency for a value x is the total number of scores that are less
than or equal to x. The charts below illustrate the difference between frequency and cumulative
frequency. Both charts sho
Emerson College of Business and Commerce, Abbottabad
Account
ACCOUNTING BS4317

Fall 2016
Problem 1
The scatterplot below shows the relation between two variables.
Which of the following statements are true?
I. The relation is strong.
II. The slope is positive.
III. The slope is negative.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and II
(E) I
Emerson College of Business and Commerce, Abbottabad
Account
ACCOUNTING BS4317

Fall 2016
Problem
College
High school
7
366
1234
6889
28
3
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0035
12446
189
01
The backtoback stemplot on the right shows the number of books read in a year by a random
sample of college and high school students. Which of the following statements ar
Emerson College of Business and Commerce, Abbottabad
Account
ACCOUNTING BS4317

Fall 2016
Problem 1
The stemplot below shows the number of hot dogs eaten by contestants in a recent hot dog eating
contest. Assume that the stems represents tens and the leaves represent ones.
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
47
226
025799
579
79
1
Which of the following stateme
Emerson College of Business and Commerce, Abbottabad
Account
ACCOUNTING BS4317

Fall 2016
How to Read a Scatterplot
A scatterplot consists of an X axis (the horizontal axis), a Y axis (the vertical axis), and a series
of dots. Each dot on the scatterplot represents one observation from a data set. The position of
the dot on the scatterplot rep
Emerson College of Business and Commerce, Abbottabad
Account
ACCOUNTING BS4317

Fall 2016
Four Ways to Describe Data Sets
When you compare two or more data sets, focus on four features:
Center. Graphically, the center of a distribution is the point where about half of the
observations are on either side.
Spread. The spread of a distribution re
Emerson College of Business and Commerce, Abbottabad
Account
ACCOUNTING BS4317

Fall 2016
Double Bar Charts
A double bar chart is similar to a regular bar chart, except that it provides two pieces of
information for each category rather than just one. Often, the charts are colorcoded with a
different colored bar representing each piece of inf
Emerson College of Business and Commerce, Abbottabad
Account
ACCOUNTING BS4317

Fall 2016
Problem 1
Consider the centigrade scale for measuring temperature. Which of the following measurement
properties is satisfied by the centigrade scale?
I. Magnitude.
II. Equal intervals.
III. A minimum value of zero.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D)
Emerson College of Business and Commerce, Abbottabad
Account
ACCOUNTING BS4317

Fall 2016
Problem 1
Consider the boxplot below.
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Which of the following statements are true?
I. The distribution is skewed right.
II. The interquartile range is about 8.
III. The median is about 10.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I an
Emerson College of Business and Commerce, Abbottabad
Account
ACCOUNTING BS4317

Fall 2016
Problem 1
Below, the cumulative frequency plot shows height (in inches) of college basketball players.
What is the interquartile range?
(A) 3 inches
(B) 6 inches
(C) 25 inches
(D) 50 inches
(E) None of the above
Solution
The correct answer is (B). The int
Emerson College of Business and Commerce, Abbottabad
Account
ACCOUNTING BS4317

Fall 2016
Properties of Measurement Scales
Each scale of measurement satisfies one or more of the following properties of measurement.
Identity. Each value on the measurement scale has a unique meaning.
Magnitude. Values on the measurement scale have an ordered rel
Emerson College of Business and Commerce, Abbottabad
Account
ACCOUNTING BS4317

Fall 2016
How to Describe Data Patterns in Statistics
Graphic displays are useful for seeing patterns in data. Patterns in data are commonly described
in terms of: center, spread, shape, and unusual features. Some common distributions have special
descriptive label
Emerson College of Business and Commerce, Abbottabad
Account
ACCOUNTING BS4317

Fall 2016
Stemplots
A stemplot is used to display quantitative data, generally from small data sets (50 or fewer
observations). The stemplot below shows IQ scores for 30 sixth graders.
Stems
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Key: 11
Leaves
1
26
4579
12225799
0234457899
11478
7
Emerson College of Business and Commerce, Abbottabad
Account
ACCOUNTING BS4317

Fall 2016
Problem 1
In one state, 52% of the voters are Republicans, and 48% are Democrats. In a second state, 47%
of the voters are Republicans, and 53% are Democrats. Suppose a simple random sample of 100
voters are surveyed from each state.
What is the probabili
Emerson College of Business and Commerce, Abbottabad
Account
ACCOUNTING BS4317

Fall 2016
Bar Charts
A bar chart is made up of columns plotted on a graph. Here is how to read a bar chart.
The columns are positioned over a label that represents a categorical variable.
The height of the column indicates the size of the group defined by the colum
Emerson College of Business and Commerce, Abbottabad
Account
ACCOUNTING BS4317

Fall 2016
Patterns of Data in Scatterplots
Scatterplots are used to analyze patterns in bivariate data. These patterns are described in terms
of linearity, slope, and strength.
Linearity refers to whether a data pattern is linear (straight) or nonlinear (curved).
S
Emerson College of Business and Commerce, Abbottabad
Account
ACCOUNTING BS4317

Fall 2016
Problem 1
The dotplot below shows the number of televisions owned by each family on a city block.
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Which of the following statements are true?
(A) The distribution is rightskewed with no outliers
Emerson College of Business and Commerce, Abbottabad
Account
ACCOUNTING BS4317

Fall 2016
The Difference Between Bar Charts and Histograms
Here is the main difference between bar charts and histograms. With bar charts, each column
represents a group defined by a categorical variable; and with histograms, each column
represents a group defined
Emerson College of Business and Commerce, Abbottabad
Account
ACCOUNTING BS4317

Fall 2016
Dotplot Overview
As you might guess, a dotplot is made up of dots plotted on a graph. Here is how to interpret a
dotplot.
Each dot represents a specific number of observations from a set of data. (Unless
otherwise indicated, assume that each dot represent