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ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
The LC3
The ISA: Overview
o The ISA specifies everything in the computer that is available to a programmer when
he/she writes programs in the computers own machine language
Everything in the computer that is available to someone who wishes to translate
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
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ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
Programming
Problem Solving
o Systematic Decomposition
Need several levels of transformations to get from a natural state to something
that electrons can deal with
Transform the problem into an algorithm
Larger tasks are systematically broken down into
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ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
Existentialism
Seizure of Power
o In 1933, called for new elections, won 44% of the votes
Cast aside temporary allies
No checks on his power
Banned the communist party, Nazi is only legal party
Only one federal government
Created three competing secu
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
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ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
Assembly Language
High level languages tend to be ISA independent
Each assembly language instruction usually specifies a single instruction in the ISA
o Low level languages are very much ISA dependent
o Assembly language makes things more userfriendly th
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
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ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
International Exhibition of Modern Art
o Called armory show, included European vanguard with American counterparts
o Well attended
o Included great work and work that latched itself into obscurity
o Work created quite a store
A critic said that there wa
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
control system
ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
Fascism
Fascism takes different forms and is hard to define
Look at the thoughts of Mussolini
o First implement of the ideas in Italy
o Became leader of Italian Socialist party
o Orthodox Marxist
o Took over government shortly after WW1
o Took over the sy
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
control system
ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
The Great Depression
By the time of Hoovers inauguration, Hoover and Coolidge were on opposing sides
Crash in October of 1929
o Initial crash is not that different from other crashes
o Bounces back initially but it still falls back down
o People in many c
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
control system
ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
Trap Routines and Subroutines
LC3 Trap Routines
o To have the program successfully obtain the input from the keyboard, it was necessary
for the programmer to know
Hardware data registers for both the keyboard and the monitor
The hardware status registe
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
control system
ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
GETC
GETC
ST R1, SAVER1
LOOPGETC
LDI, RI, KBSRPT
BRZP LOOPGETC
LDI R0, KBDRPT
LD R1, SAVER1
RET
KBSRPT
.FILL xFE00
KBDRPT
.FILL xFE02
We dont have to save and load back R0, we would be destroying what the routine was meant to do if we
load and save it
OU
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
control system
ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
CS Lewis
Started out as a professor at Oxford
Wrote mainly about Christianity
Two Themes
o Human beings have a curious idea that they ought to behave in a certain way, and
cannot get rid of it
o There is a standard outside of us and we dont live up to it
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
control system
ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
Paralysis
One Mind and Will
o Systematic union of ends, a radical union with one mind and will and we think about
things in one way
o Religious wars of 16th century
Approach religion in one mind and one way
o Extends to politics and everything else
Gleic
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
control system
ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
PreCalculus Chapter 04.104.4 Study Guide Solutions
Name Aqui_
Date _ Per _
Convert the angle from degrees to radians or from radians to degrees. Determine the quadrant in which the angle lies. (calculator)
1.
a
b
c
3.
a
b
c
d
e
13
4
180
585, Q III
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
control system
ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
PreCalculus Chapter 04.504.8 Review Sheet
Name _
Date _ Per _
Identify the amplitude and period from the graph. Write a sine function for the graph.
1.)
2.)
amplitude 2
f x d a sin bx c
amplitude 3
period 2
f x 0 3 sin 1x 0
f x 3sin x
a amplitude
b fo
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
control system
ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
Name _
Date _ Per _
PreCalculus Chapter 09.109.3 Sequences and Series Study Guide
Write the first four terms a1 a4 of the sequence. No calculator.
1. an 8
2. a1 6, an1 7 an
4. an 3n 5
5. an
3. a1 3, an 1
n!
n3
6. an
1
an
4
n 1!
n!
Write the followin
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
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ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
Name _
Date _ Per _
Precalculus Chapter 12.112.2 Limits Study Guide
Use the given graph of f x to evaluate the limit. (calculator)
1. a ) lim f x
x 3
b) lim f x
x 2
c ) lim f x
x 0
d ) lim f x
x 0
e) lim f x
x 0
f ) lim f x
x2
Use the given informa
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
control system
ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
Name _
Date _ Per _
Precalculus Chapter 10 Parametric and Polar Study Guide
Fill in the table of values and graph the equation t 0. Include orientation.
Find the domain and range given t 0.
t 0 1 2 3
1.
x
y t t 3
y
x t t 2
t
2.
x
y t 2t 1
y
x t t 2 3
0
1
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
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ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
Name _
Date _ Per _
Precalculus Ch. 12.312.4 Limits and Derivatives Study Guide (No Calculator)
Note: Notation matters! Be sure to follow the directions.
Find the derivative of the function by using the limit process (no power rule).
2. g x
1. f x 3 x 2
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
control system
ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
PreCalculus Chapter 07.107.3 Systems and Piecewise Study Guide Solutions
Name _Aqui_
Date _ Per _
Solve the system of equations by the method of your choice (no calculator). We are grading the
method not the solution.
1.
3 x 4 y 1
x 5 y 13 3
2.
3 x 4 y 1
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
control system
ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
Name _
Date _ Per _
PreCalculus Chapter 03 Log Review Sheet
(a) Find and label all equations of all asymptotes.
(b) Make a table of at least 3 values and graph the function.
x
1.)
f x 3
4.)
j x log 2 x
x2
1
2.) g x 1
2
3.) h x 4 x 3
5.) k x 2 log 3 x 1
6.
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
control system
ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
PreCalculus Chapter P Study Guide Solutions
Name _Aqui_
Date _ Per _
Determine the quadrant(s) in which (x,y) is located.
1.
3, 5
2.
Quadrant III
x 0 and y 0
Quadrant IV
3.
x3
Quadrants I , II , III , or IV
Find the distance and midpoint of the following
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
control system
ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
PreCalculus Chapter 02 Study Guide Solutions
Name Aqui_
Date _ Per _
Write an equation of a quadratic function in Vertex Form from the given information.
g x x 2 3x 2
f x x 6x 5
2
2
9
3
2.) g x x 3x 2
4
2
f x x 6x 9 5 9
2
2
1.)
f x x 3 14
2
2
3 1
g x x
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
control system
ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
PreCalculus Chapter 03 Logs Study Guide Solutions
(a) Find and label all equations of all asymptotes.
(b) Make a table of at least 3 values and graph the function.
f x 3x 2 0
1.) Horizontal Asymptote : y 0
x
y
1
9
2 1
0
3
3
x
1
g x 1
2
2.) Horizontal Asym
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
control system
ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
Name _Aqui_
Date _ Per _
PreCalculus Chapter 01 Study Guide
Evaluate the function at each specified value and simplify (notation matters).
g x x2 3
f x 2x 3
a 2 g 1 4 2 1
a f 4 2 4 3
2.) b g x x 3
2
b f x 2 x 3
x2 3
2 x 3
c g x 2 x 2
c f x 1 2 x 1 3
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
control system
ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
Name _
Date _ Per _
PreCalculus Chapter 04.104.4 Review Sheet
Convert the angle from degrees to radians or from radians to degrees. Determine the quadrant in
which the angle lies.
1.
13
4
5
3
13
6
a
b
c
2.
a
b
c
2
3
3.
2
7
4
a
b
c
d
e
180
30
135
270
225
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
control system
ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
PreCalculus Chapter P Study Guide
Name _
Date _ Per _
Determine the quadrant(s) in which (x,y) is located.
1. 3, 5
2. x 0 and y 0
3. x 3
Find the distance and midpoint of the following points.
1
1
4.) 3, 7 , 1, 5
5.) ,3 , 7,
4
2
Write an equation (fo
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
control system
ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
Chapter 2 Bits, Data Types, and Operations
2.1 Bits and Data Types
o Inside computers there are millions of tiny, fast devices that control the movement of
the electrons
React to presence or absence of voltages in electronic circuits
You can detect volt
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
control system
ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
Chapter 1 Welcome Aboard
1.1 What We will try to do
o Computers are deterministic systems (every action has the same response
A huge systematically interconnected collection of very simple parts
1.2 How We Will Get There
o There is no difference between
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
control system
ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
Introduction to Computing
There are numbers
o Processing the numbers
Processor (carrying out the processing)memory (store the numbers)
Input output will also store the numbers (helps man to interact with the
system), can be considered as extended memor
Frontier Education Foundation Degree College for Girls, Nahagi, Peshawar
control system
ENGINEERIN 238

Fall 2016
Chapter 3
3.1 The Transistor
o Most microprocessors are built out of MOS (it stands for metaloxide semiconductors)
transistors
Theyre electrical properties are beyond our scope so if they start misbehaving,
we are at their mercy
There are two types of