CHAPTER 4: Fallacies
1. A fallacy is an error in reasoning. The word fallacy also refers to a type of argument that may
seem to be correct, but proves not to be so upon closer examination. An argument is said to
commit a fallacy when it makes
CHAPTER THIRTEEN: SCIENCE AND HYPOTHESIS
1. Modern science has had a profound impact on our livesmostly for the better.
The laws and principles of science are valuable quite apart from their practical
usefulness, though: They are also importa
1. Once recognized, arguments can be analyzed by paraphrasing them or
by diagramming them. Paraphrasing involves rewording the argument
in a clear and precise form. Diagramming involves laying out the
LANGUAGE AND DEFINITION
3.1. Language can be divided into three basic categories according to its function.
Informative discourse is language used to convey information, just like this
Expressive discourse is used to
1. Logic is the study of reasoning: how it is done correctly, how it goes
wrong, and how to distinguish between correct and incorrect reasoning.
Reasoning involves constructing and evaluating arguments.
2. Arguments are made up of propositions. In an argu
LANGUAGE AND DEFINITION
Comments on some of the exercises along with some sample answers
Comment on 3.1 exercises: In evaluating the purpose and merit of particular passages or
definitions taken from actual discourse, interpretation and jud
Chapter 8: Symbolic Logic
Other than a brief reading, we have skipped the chapters on classical logic, which is
associated with the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle. Those chapters are better
suited to a year-long logic course that has more emphasis on
1. In inductive arguments, there is no claim of certainty made for the conclusion.
Instead, premises are intended to support the conclusion in only a probable way.
Despite this, inductive arguments can be
1.All inductive arguments are governed by probability. In some inductive arguments,
however, this probability can be measured quantitativelystated as a fraction between
0 and 1. Two different theories describe ho
1. Inductive arguments are often based on more than analogy. Frequently, they involve
reasoning from effect to cause and from cause to effect. The word cause can have
various meanings. Logicians distinguish be
Math 299B - Putnam Expresse
Dr. Roohollah Ebrahimian
Office: Math 2303
Office Hours: Th: 1:30-2:30 PM, WF: 9:30-10:30 AM
VT Competition will be held on Saturday, October 24th from 8:45 to 11:30 AM in
The main goal of this cou