Def : removal of uterus including the cervix.
Total hysterectomy :vagina and ovaries not
Total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral
tubes and the ovaries.
Radical hysterectomy: includes pelvic lymp
Womens Health Connection
What You Should Know About .
ANDROPAUSE (MALE MENOPAUSE)
Most everyone is familiar with the term menopause, which refers to the end of a womans
reproductive years. What some people dont
know is that men also go through
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology C
The official voice of reproductive health care in Canada
Le porte-parole officiel des soins gnsiques
siques au Canad
Journal dobsttrique et gyncologie
ogi du Canada
Volume 32, Number 7 volume
Endometrial Hyperplasia and Cancer
process is overgrowth of the
endometrium in response to an
estrogen dominated hormonal
The origin of the estrogen may be
exogenous, or endogenous from
either the ovary, o
1. Review the anatomy and physiology of the female reproductive system.
2. Gynaecological assessment to include:
Gynaecological history, physical exam, radiological and laboratory investigations
3. Description of various gynaeco
UTERINE LEIOMYOMATA (fibroids)
Although are commonly called fibroid or
fibromyoma, they are actually benign tumors
of locally proliferating smooth muscle cells.
Most common uterine tumor.
Common indication for pelvic surgery e.g
Any AUB in the absence of organic disease
Mostly the bleeding is anovulatory
Common at the extremes of reprod. life (i.e.
post menarchal and perimenopausally)
Is a dx of exclusion, therefore term is often
PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE
Morbidity: PID accounts for: 25% hysterectomy
Ectopic rate 9x normal
Definition = a spectrum of
inflammatory disorders of the upper
female genital t
Endometriosis = a benign disorder resulting from the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside
the uterine cavity.
Endometrioma = an area of endometriosis, usually in the ovary, big enough to be called a t
Definition: is the expulsion of the foetus
before the 28th week of gestation legally 24
wks. The most common time for abortion to
occur is between the 8th and the 13th week of
Carcinoma of the cervix
3rd most common Ca affecting women
Affecting poorest regions of SSA,latin
america & india.
Occurs almost exclusively among women
who are or have been sexually active.
Definition: extra uterine pregnancy or
where implantation occurs at a site other
than the uterine cavity.
N.B implantation takes place eleven (11)
days after fertilization. If the ovum has not
reach the uterus by
David mutathi mwangi
What is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)?
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), also known by the name Stein-Leventhal syndrome, is a hormonal
problem that causes women to have a variety of symptoms. It should be noted that most women
CANCER OF THE BREAST
Benign tumours develop from the
overgrowth of fibrous and
glandular tissue from the lining of
are round or oval, smooth
These tumours are easily removed
(incised). 9/10 of all breast tumours
SURGICAL STAGES OF CANCER OF THE UTERUS
Cancer limited to the lining of the uterus
No invasion into the uterine wall
Invasion into less than one half of the uterine wall
Invasion into more than one half the uterine wall
Vulvitis and Vaginitis
An Approach to the Patient with Vulvar Symptoms, i.e., "Does this
Vulvo-vaginal disease among the ten leading disorders seen by primary
Patients may present with acute, subacute, or indol
Bartholins glands are pea sized, found in
labia minora at 4 and 8 oclock positions.
Typically non palpable.
Secrete mucus into duct emerging into
vestibule on either side of vaginal orifice.
Def: benign tumours of the
smooth muscle aka
Linked to oestrogen activity as
they tend to shrink after
Genetics, known to run in families
Common in nulliparous
Interstitial ( intramural):
The desire to have children b a normal
woman is stronger than self interest in
beauty and figure. In man its less intense.
Childlessness is generally a tragedy to the
married woman and can be a cause of
VVF & RVF
Abnormal communication between the vagina
and the bladder
Prolonged or obstructed labor (obstructed
fistula) - 90% of causes.
Gynecologic surgery - colporrhaphy (Repair of
a rupture of the vagina by excision and
Definition: The presence of functional
endometrium outside the uterus.
Also found in:
? Due to backflow during m
Female reprod. anatomy
DEFINITION: This is a term applied to any
alteration in the normal pattern of
Menstrual flow. It can either be: Excessive
Inter-menstrual bleeding (metrorrhagia).
Definition: An abnormal opening between
two internal organs
VAGINA AND URINARY BLADDER ( VESCOVAGINAL
This is opening between the urinary bladder and the vagina.
Common site of VescoVaginal fistulae
Juxta-urethral fistulae wh
Ovarian and Adnexal Disease
Adnexae = the area between the
lateral pelvic wall and the cornu of
the uterus, which includes the
ovaries, fallopian tubes, upper
portion of the broad ligament and
mesosalpinx, and the remnants of
the mullerian duct.
Cancer of the cervix was both the most common
malignancy in females as well as the leading
cause of death from malignancy for women
prior to 1940, but is now 2nd in frequency and
sixth on the mortality list because of:
History taking and General examination.
Just like any other aspect of medicine, Gynaecology and Obstetrics requires that as
a health worker, you must find clues in the patients history and physical examination
to help you make the right diagnosis. The mor
Menopause = that point in time when menses have ceased for six months secondary to
the depletion of responsive ovarian follicles.
Climacteric = the physiologic phase of life which marks the transition from reproductive