PRINCIPLE 2 and 3
Irene B. Taghap
What is COBIT?
- Control Objectives for Information and related Technology
What is COBIT 5?
-Fifth iteration of COBIT an ISACA Framework
-Complete internationally accepted framework for
Proceedings of the 1992 IEEE Scalable High Performance Computing Conference,
Williamsburg, VA., April 26-29, 1992, pp. 232-235, IEEE Press.
33.Mutalik, P. M., Knight, L. R., Blanton, J. L. and Wainwright, R. L. "Solving
Combinatorial Optimization Problems
Dan Gusfield. 1997. Algorithms on Strings, Trees and Sequences. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
FUZZY COGNITIVE MAPS AND INTELLIGENT DECISION SUPPORT
M Shamim Khan1, Alex Chong1, and Mohammed Quaddus2
School of Information Techno
Where E is the edge matrix of the new combined FCM, E k is the edge matrix of FCM k, Wk is the
credibility weight assigned to FCM k, and N is the number of FCMs to be combined. Siegel and Taber
(1987) outlines procedures for credibility
evolve through a series of interactions among related concepts. Feedback plays a prominent role
among them by propagating causal influences in complicated pathways. Formulating a quantitative
mathematical model for such a system may be difficult or imposs
Primary GA Bibliography (1993)
1.Proceedings of the First International Conference on Genetic Algorithms,
John Grefenstette, Editor, Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., 1985.
2.Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Genetic Algorithms,
16.J. Grefenstette, GENESIS, Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial
Intelligence, Navy research Lab., Wash. D.C. 20375-5000.
17.J. Grefenstette, "Optimization of Control Parameters for Genetic Algorithms",
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cyb
are search algorithms based on the mechanics of
the natural selection process (biological evolution).
The most basic concept is that the strong tend to
adapt and survive while the weak tend to die out.
That is, optimization is based on evolution, and the
1. 6 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
Fuzzy systems in general have already proven themselves capable of dealing with the inherent
imprecision encountered in real-world problem domains. This is borne out particularly by the success of
fuzzy commercial pro
One application domain known for its complexity is that of strategic information systems planning
(SISP). SISP requires planners to develop scenarios and assess alternative ways of applying IT in order to
improve organisational performance. Strategic issu
A desired property of DSS yet to materialise fully is the ability to learn. Although it is possible to build an
expert system capable of learning (e.g. the hybrid approach of combining artificial neural networks and
expert systems), it is generally quite
1.1 5.1 Development of FCMs for decision support
FCMs can be based on textual descriptions given by an expert on a problem scenario or on interviews
with the expert. The steps followed are:
Step 1: Identification of key concepts/issues/factors influencing
The main objective of building a cognitive map around a problem is to be able to predict the outcome by
letting the relevant issues interact with one another. These predictions can be used for finding out
whether a decision made by someone is consistent w
Chong, A. (1999b) "Development of a Fuzzy Cognitive Map Based Decision Support Systems Generator",
Honours dissertation, School of Information Technology, Murdoch University, 1999.
Cox, E. (1999) The Fuzzy Systems Handbook, 2 nd ed., AP Professional, San
The FCM structure can be viewed as a recurrent artificial neural network, where concepts are
represented by neurons and causal relationships by weighted links or edges connecting the neurons.
By using Koskos conventions, the interconnection strength betwe
22.D. Whitley, T. Starkweather, and C. Bogart, "Genetic Algorithm and Neural
Networks: Optimizing Connections and Connectivity", Parallel Computing,
23.D. Whitley and J. Kauth, GENITOR: A Different Genetic Algorithm, Proceedings
of the Rocky M
Lee, K.C., Lee, W.J., Kwon, O.B., Han, J.H., Yu, P.I. (1998) Strategic Planning Simulation Based on Fuzzy
Cognitive Map Knowledge and Differential Game", Simulation, Nov. 1998, pp. 316-327.
Margaritis, K. G., Tsadiras, A. K. (1997) Cognitive Mapping and C
INTELLIGENT DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS
Intelligent DSS have resulted from the use of artificial intelligence techniques to improve the
performance of more traditional systems. AI techniques are used in DSS knowledge bases and inferential
modern information systems, decision support systems (DSS) are software products aimed at improving
the quality of organisational decision making.
The core task of a DSS is decision analysis. Real-life problems are mostly unstructured in nature, which
R.L., "Terminal Assignment in a Communication Network Using Genetic
Algorithms", to appear in the 22nd Annual ACM Computer Science Conference CSC'94, March, 1994.
28.Blanton, J.L. and Wainwright, R.L. "Multiple Vehicle Routing with Time
and Capacity Const
Inline transliteration or translation can be represented in the order of: original-form transliteration
translation. For example, tai-wan-da-xue Taiwan University is the full name for its
Length of Submission
Long papers may consist
in designing systems for decision support. Fuzzy logic has been applied in rule-based systems, where
rules fire with strengths ranging from none at all to full. The combined effect of these rules gives rise
to assertions having a proportional strength. On
recently and is described in (Chong, 1999b). Further work on FCM-based DSS systems are planned for
Aleksander, I. (1989) "Why Neural Computing? A Personal View", Neural Computing Architectures, Ed.,
Aleksander, I., North Oxford Ac
"They combine survival of the fittest among string structures with
a structured yet randomized information exchange to form a search
algorithm with some of the innovative flair of human search. In
every generation, a new set of artificial cre
4.1 Extensions of FCMs
A number of researchers have developed extended versions of the FCM model described above. Tsadiras
et al (1995b) describe the extended FCM, in which concepts are augmented with memory capabilities
and decay mechanisms. The new a
Juan Pablo Avila
Robbins Stephen. (2004:8)
Es un campo de estudio que investiga el impacto de los
individuos, grupos y estructuras sobre el comportamiento
dentro de las organizaciones, con el propsito de aplicar los
David Esteban Avila Castillo
modificacin del color de la
piel en el que se crea un
dibujo, una figura o un texto
contintao con algn otro
de una persona.
Los tatuajes fuero
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