SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORIES
The State of Nature
The Social Contract
The State of Nature: A pre-social condition.
The Social Contract: An agreement between (a) members of the
(b) members of the c
o Life and Influences
Born April 15, 1858 in France.
Father, Grandfather, and Great-Grandfather were all rabbis.
He believed religion could be explained from social rather than divine
Entered the cole Normale Suprieure in 1879.
s Why Study Marxism Today?
s Most of the Communist world collapsed
s Why bother?
s Incredibly influential work
s Adopted by half of the world at one time
s Had some good ideas
s and some fatal flaws
s The idea is not to convert you but to help yo
Philosophers lovers of wisdom
Sophists workers of wisdom
phileo = love
sophia = wisdom
If sophia = wisdom and moron = fool, then a sophomore is a wise fool.
Thales of Miletus
Earliest known philosopher
o The study of people in groups
Groups in the process of self-formation
through the actions of individuals
through the actions and forces of the groups themselves
The Study of People in Groups
The Scientific study of
Separation of Powers
Checks and Balances
How do these principles of democracy protect the people?
Separation of Powers
Dividing different powers among three branches of government
Prevents one branch from gaining too much power
o Postmodernism Defined
o Jacques Derrida (1930- )
Born in El-Biar, Algeria
French philosopher and essayist (not a sociologist)
Used a deconstructive approach
Illustrated in his three 1967 works
o Of grammatology, Writing and Difference
o Scientific Revolution Leads to Enlightenment
1500-1700: European scientists using reason to discover laws of nature
Very successful: Planetary movements, chemistry, vaccine for
Early 1700s: If people used reason to f
Introducing Feminist Theory
Re-visionizing the man-made world (Crotty)
Critique of patriarchy
Struggle for equity and liberation for women
Freeing of human possibilities by struggling against culturally imposed
stereotypes, lifestyles, roles,
Roots of Critical Theory
o This school of thought emerged from the work of German theorists collectively
known as The Frankfurt School. The roots of Critical Theory are directly centered
in the creation of The Institute for Social Research and the social
Origins of Social Thought: Overview of Major Periods
o Dark Ages (450-1000 CE) Religious dogma dominated
o Renaissance, Scientific Revolutions, Reformation (1400 1600)
o The Enlightenment, Age of Reason (1700s)
Rousseau- the people rule
Kant- dare to q
What is Social Theory?
o Now lets develop a more precise definition
Social theory is a system of generalized statements or propositions about
Social theories do two things:
Explain and predict the phenomena in question
Chapter 3: Social Cognition
o Social Cognition
Social Cognition- how we interpret, analyze, and remember
information about our social world
What role do schemas play in social cognition?
What types of mental shortcuts do we use?
What errors bias our
What is Postmodernism?
- Postmodernism is a term that encompasses a wide-range of developments in
philosophy, film, architecture, art, literature, and culture.
- Originally a reaction to modernism, referring to the lack of artistic, intellectual, or
Theory Construction and Evaluation
o What is Theory?
Theory is a set on interconnected statements or propositions that explain
how two or more events or factors are related to one another
The parts of Theory
Concepts are building blocks of theory
The Early Schools of Criminology and Modern Counterparts
o Chapter Summary
Chapter Three is an overview of classical, positivist, and neoclassical
theories of crime.
The Chapter begins by outlining the main assumptions of classical theory,
o Documenting a words history.
o Why include etymology?
Many users are curious about history and where words came from.
Linguists and historians can learn much from historical linguistics.
Etymology can explain otherwise puzzling aspects of