2. Thematic: A thematic approach, where chapters or sections
concentrate on one particular area of interest, is of more general
use to an intermediate user. Some authors prefer to convey
their ideas through a knowledge based article to facilitating th
The symptom may disappear (temporarily) when another
error is corrected.
The symptom may actually be caused by non-errors (e.g.,
The symptom may be caused by human error that is not
The symptom may be a resu
11.9.1 The Debugging Process
Debugging is not testing but always occurs as a
consequence of testing. Referring to Figure in the next page, the
debugging process begins with the execution or a test case.
Results are assessed and a lack or correspondenc
In a broader context, successful tests (of any kind) result in
the discovery of errors, and errors must be corrected. Whenever
software is corrected, some aspect of the software configuration
(the program, its documentation, or the data that support i
associated with stubs may be offset by the advantage of testing
major control functions early. The major disadvantage of bottom-up
integration is that the program as an entity does not exist until the
last module is added. This drawback is tempered by
Integration follows the pattern illustrated in Figure below.
Components are combined to form clusters 1,2, and 3.
Each of the clusters is tested using a driver (shown as a
dashed block). Components in cl
problems occurs when processing at low levels in the hierarchy is
required to adequately test upper levels. Stubs replace low-level
modules at the beginning of top-down testing; therefore, no
significant data can now upward in the program structure. T
specific characteristics. For example, selecting the left hand path,
components M1 M2 and M5 would be integrated first. Next, M8 or
(if necessary proper functioning of M2) M6 would be integrated.
Then, the central and right hand control paths are buil
limited by the constrained scope established for unit testing. The
unit test is white-box oriented, and the step can be conducted in
parallel for multiple components.
11.6 INTEGRATION TESTING
A neophyte in the software world might ask a seemingly
CATEGORIES OF TESTING
The Testing process and the Software Testing Life Cycle
Types of Testing
Black Box and White Box testing
Black box testing
2. Test Design
3. Test Environment setup
4. Test Execution
5. Defect Analysis & Tracking
6. Final Reporting
According to the respective projects, the scope of testing can
be tailored, but the process mentioned above is common to any
12.7.2 Control Structure testing
Condition testing aims to exercise all logical conditions in a
program module. They may define:
Relational expression: (E1 op E2), where E1 and E2 are
Simple condition: Bool
12.7 WHITE BOX TESTING
Software testing approaches that examine the program
structure and derive test data from the program logic. Structural
testing is sometimes referred to as clear-box testing since white
boxes are considered opaque and do not real
are properly organised and stored and, last but not least, individual
translators are not too motivated to change their working habits.
Laboratory tests are mostly performed to assess the general
usability of the system. Due to the high laboratory equ
Black-box testing for safety critical systems in which
independently developed implementations of redundant systems
are tested for conformance to specifications. Often equivalence
class partitioning is used to develop a common set o
of a particular one. Some call this "gray-box" or "translucent-box"
test design, but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes
12.6 BLACK BOX TESTING
Black Box Testing is testing without knowledge of the internal
workings of the item being
The aim of recovery testing is to make sure to which extent
data can be recovered after a system breakdown. Does the system
provide possibilities to recover all of the data or part of it? How
much can be recovered and how? Is the recovered data still
Beta Testing: Testing conducted at one or more customer sites by
the end user of a delivered software product system.
12.4 THE TESTING TECHNIQUES
To perform these types of testing, there are two widely used
testing techniques. The above said testing t
The kind of verification we do on the software work products
before the process of Compilation and creation of an executable is
more of Requirement review, design review, code review,
walkthrough and audits. This type of testing is called Static Testi
along streamlines that decrease the level of abstraction on each
A strategy for software testing may also be viewed in the
context of the spiral (figure above). Unit testing begins at the vortex
of the spiral and concentrates on each unit (i.e,
There are often a number of misconceptions that can be
erroneously inferred from the preceding discussion:
That the developer of software should do no testing at all.
That the software should be tossed over the wall to
strangers who will test it mer
DESIGNING INPUT, OUTPUT & USER
10.2 Output Design
10.3 Input Design
10.4 User Interface
10.5 Golden rules of Interface Design
Output is what the customer is buying when he o
Example: Warnier Orr diagram for Payroll cycle.
A Warnier/Orr diagram is a style of diagram which is
extremely useful for describing complex processes (e.g. computer
programs, business processes, instructions) and objects (e.g. data
Repetition: To show that an action repeats (loops), you simply put
the number of repetitions of the action in parentheses
below the action.
The diagram below illustrates the use of these constructs to
describe a simple process.
You could read the abov
software product being documented by API Writers. This
documentation may be used by developers, testers and also the
end customers or clients using this software application.
Many programmers really like the idea of auto-generating
documentation for v
analysis. On paper, the development moves from right to left. First,
the intended output or results of the processing are defined. At the
next level, shown by inclusion with a bracket, the steps needed to
produce the output are defined. Each step in t
show additional detail. Structure charts can be used to display
several types of information, but are used most commonly to
diagram either data structures or code structures.
Why we use HIPO chart?
The HIPO (Hierarchy plus Input-Process-Output) techni
Diagrammatically presentation: A
interactive inventory control program.
9.9 WARNIER-ORR DIAGRAM:
A Warnier/Orr diagram (also known as a logical
of hierarchical flowchart that allow the
COM is Computer Output Microfilm. It is more compressed
than traditional output and may be produced as fast as non-impact
Turnaround documents trim down the cost of internal
information processing by reducing both data entry and