September 8, 2016
pH, pK and Buffers
Review dissociation constants and pK calculations
Describe the relationship between pH and pK
Apply the utility of the Henderson-Hasselbalch
List the properties of a buffer
Lecture 1 Review BioC 3021
1. What are the six most common elements present as covalent components of bioorganic
The six most common elements present are Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Sulfur, Phosphorus, and
2. What are covalent bonds, an
Lecture 10 Review BioC 3021
1. What are the basic features of monosaccharides? What are the defining features of an aldose
vs a ketose, and what are triose, tetrose, pentose, hexoses and heptose sugars?
- Monosaccharides are the basic building blocks from
Lecture 7 Review BioC 3021
1. In addition to the basic ES intermediate in an enzyme reaction, what other types of
intermediates are formed and why are these intermediates so important?
- There can be more transition states and an enzyme product complex be
Lecture 16 Review BioC 3021
1. What is the function of the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction in the overall pathway of
glucose oxidation? What is the reaction substrate and what are the three reaction products?
What percentage of the free energy change in t
Lecture 13 Review BioC 3021
1. What are the common characteristics of the enzyme proteins that catalyze each step in
- Cellular reactions are catalyzed by enzymes
- Most enzymes are proteins (a few are nucleic acids)
Lecture 18 Review BioC 3021
1. How quantitatively important are lipids such as triacylglycerols as human energy stores?
Why is storage of energy as lipid much more efficient than storage as carbohydrate?
What cell type accounts for most lipid storage?
Lecture 9 Review BioC 3021
1. What are the characteristics of the five major classes of extracellular proteins found in the
blood? Which of these classes consist of only one protein, and which contain multiple
proteins? Which of these classes contains lip
Lecture 8 Review BioC 3021
1. What are the common mechanisms used by enzymes to achieve catalysis? How do these
mechanisms reduce or increase the energy level of an enzyme-substrate or enzyme-transition
state intermediate? Which of these mechanisms specif
Lecture 15 Review BioC 3021
1. What two linkages join the glucose units of glycogen together? What do the numbers and
alpha designator in these linkages signify? What is the net effect of branching in glycogen
on the kinetics of glycogen breakdown?
Lecture 19 Review BioC 3021
1. What are the three sources of the 20 amino acids that are used for protein synthesis in
- By digestion of dietary protein
- By turnover of cellular proteins
- By biosynthesis from simple building blocks
2. How do ess
Lecture 11 Review BioC 3021
1. What are the common features of the major lipids- fatty acids, triacylglycerols,
phosphoglycerols, sphingolipids, polyisoprenoides and sterols? What are the relative
oxidation states, amount of potential energy, polarity and
Lecture 14 Review BioC 3021
1. What is the starting material for glycolysis, and what are the two major end products? What
is the primary function of glycolysis in human metabolism?
- Glycolysis is a metabolic pathway in which glucose is converted to pyru
Lecture 12 Review BioC 3021
1. What are the major functions of nucleotides and nucleic acids? What three components are
found in these substances? What component makes them acids?
- Nucleic acids carry out a number of cellular functions.
o They store gene
Lecture 3 Review for BioC 3021
1. What are the names and chemical structures of the 20 common amino acids?
2. Which amino acid isomer is found in protein molecules? Why does protein synthesis involve only
the L-isomer? What would the protein products
Lecture 5 Review for BioC 3021
1. What three methodologies or strategies must a research scientist use in order to carry out the
purification of a protein?
1) selecting a readily available biological source that contains high levels of the protein
Welcome to Biochemistry
A syllabus is available at the
front of the room.
Please pick up a survey form and
begin to fill it out.
4:15 pm 5:45 pm TTh
B45 Ruttan Hall
Instructor: Janet L. Schottel, Professor
September 13, 2016
Amino Acids and Peptides
Draw the structures of the 20 amino acids
Define amino acids as weak acids with
Draw titration curves for amino acids
Describe the peptide bond
Amino Acids (AAs)
20 fundamental bui
September 22, 2016
Proteins: Structure and Function
List the properties of globular
Describe the structure and oxygen
binding properties of myoglobin
List the properties of fibrous
October 6, 2016
Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
Draw structures of the purine and
pyrimidine bases and nucleotides
Define the 3 and 5 ends of a
Describe the hydrolysis and cleavage
of nucleic acids
List the properties and
October 11, 2016
Thermodynamics and Introduction to
Describe exergonic and endergonic reactions
Calculate changes in free energy and its
relationship to the equilibrium constant for
Define activation energy and list
September 29, 2016
List properties of the monosaccharides
Draw structures of selected
monosaccharides and disaccharides
Describe modifications to sugars and
draw representative structures
Describe the properties of certa
September 15, 2016
Proteins: Primary Structure and
Describe the primary structure of proteins
Describe methods for peptide sequencing
Define the basis for the different protein
October 4, 2016
Lipids and Membranes
Define the different types of lipids
Draw structures of selected fatty acids,
triglycerides, phospholipids and
Describe the features of membrane structure
September 20, 2016
Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary
Describe the structure of the peptide
List the properties of the alpha-helix and
Describe the interactions and energetics
Lecture 6 Review for BioC 3021
1. What is the definition of a catalyst, and why do enzymes qualify as catalysts?
A catalyst speeds up the rate of biochemical reactions with themselves being permanently
altered in the course of reaction.
2. What are the ch
The pH and pOH of pure water should be 7.00 because the concentrations of H+ and
OH- are equal. Since pure water has a pH of 7.00, we know the total pH + pOH = 14,
therefore pOH must be 7 as well without doing any calculations. Also withou
Lecture 2 Review for BioC 3021
1. What are the most common oxidization and reduction reactions in living organisms?
Catabolism releases energy by oxidizing reduced carbon atoms converting them to a higher
Anabolism uses stored energy to r
Lecture 4 Review for BioC 3021
1. What are the four levels of protein structure and what are the characteristics of each level?
Primary structure: the core of the primary structure is a three atom repeating unit consisting of:
amino nitrogen, carbonyl car
Lecture 17 Review BioC 3021
1. Oxidative phosphorylation includes two components parts, the electron transport system and
the ATP Synthase. What are the functions of each of these systems, and where are these
systems located within the mitochondria? What