Uses of the to-infinitive
Look at the following sentences:
To err is human.
To retreat now would be a disgrace.
What are the subjects of these two sentences? You will have noticed that they are to err and to retreat both
infinitives. Thus we have seen tha
Common mistakes in the use of personal pronouns
The pronouns that are used as subjects are: I, he, she, we, they, you and it.
The pronouns that are used as objects of verbs or prepositions are: me, him, her, us, them, you and it.
Note that you and it does
Introductory it exercise
When the subject is an infinitive phrase, the sentence often begins with it. However, when we wish to emphasize
the infinitive phrase, it can be put at the beginning, especially if it is short.
Rewrite the following sentences usin
How to report commands and requests
The following rules are observed when we report commands and requests.
Use a reporting verb like request, order, tell, advise, beseech, threaten, beg, implore, ask, propose and forbid.
Note that all of these verbs excep
Kinds of Nouns: Exercise
Point out the nouns in the following sentences and say whether they are common, proper, collective or
1. Always speak the truth.
2. Honesty is the best policy.
3. King Solomon was famous for his wisdom.
4. A committee of
May / might + have + past participle
The structure may / might + perfect infinitive is used to talk about the possibility that something happened in the
past. It could also be used to say that something was true in the past.
Ann hasnt arrived yet. She may
It as a provisional subject
When the subject is a phrase that consists of a gerund (-ing form), it is used as a provisional subject to begin the
sentence. Instead of saying Your trying to convince him is no good we generally say It is no good your trying
Adverb clauses of comparison
Adverb clauses of comparison are of two kinds:
1. Adverb clauses of comparison of degree
2. Adverb clauses of comparison of manner
Adverb clauses of comparison of degree
Adverb clauses of comparison of degree are introduced by
Prepositions Quiz 2
Fill in the blanks with appropriate prepositions.
1. The boy walked the road.
d) in to
2. The river flows - the bridge.
3. The work was done haste.
The forms like Ive, dont etc. are called contractions. There are two kinds:
Auxiliary verb + not
cant (= cannot)
wouldnt (= would not)
shouldnt (= should not)
wont (= will not)
havent (= have not)
isnt (= is not)
You shouldnt do it.
I cant co
Reporting promises, orders, requests, advice etc
Orders, promises and requests are often reported with infinitives, or object + infinitive.
Direct speech: Jane said, I will write.
Indirect speech: Jane promised to write.
Direct speech: She said to me, Ple
Fill in the blanks with appropriate prepositions.
1. We regret that we cannot comply . your request.
2. The best candidate should be appointed the post.
3. He is addicted . gambling.
Correct the following sentences.
1. He is running seventeen.
2. He is eighteen complete.
3. According to me, it is wrong.
4. Our house is built by bricks.
5. He went to the back side of the building.
6. He was prevented to come.
Write the following sentences in contracted form.
1. You ought not to have offended her.
2. They are waiting in the hall.
3. If you do not behave, there would be trouble.
4. I will be happy when this is finished.
5. I shall definitel
Degree modifiers exercise
Fill in the blanks with appropriate degree modifiers.
There is too .noise in the street.
How . people do you want to help you?
They do . a lot of business in the Middle East.
Adverb clauses of degree or comparison
Adverb clauses of degree or comparison answer the question how much, how little or how many. The chief
conjunctions used to introduce adverb clauses of degree are as, asas, soas and than.
She is older than her husban
Proper placement of clauses and phrases
Phrases and clauses should be placed in such a way that they relate clearly to the words they modify.
Move a phrase or clause in each of these sentences so that they will make sense.
1. We saw many kinds of fish cru
Sentence transformation exercise
Rewrite the following sentences using the adjective form of the words italicized.
1. Fortunately, we were well-equipped to repel the attack.
2. Francis Bacon was a man of remarkable industry and intelligence.
3. He takes m
Reporting past tenses
In indirect speech, a speakers present perfect and past tenses are often reported using past perfect tenses.
This is because the events a person spoke about must have happened before he/she spoke.
Direct speech: Alice said, I have ju
Of with determiners
We can use a Group B determiner directly before nouns. We dont have to use of.
We need to buy some sugar. (NOT We need to buy some of sugar.)
Most people like to travel. (NOT Most of people like to travel.)
However, a Group B determine
Restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses
The relative pronouns who and which can be used to identify or define nouns. They tell us which person or thing
we are talking about.
The man who had cheated me was arrested by the police.
Here the relative
Overworked words nice and get
Write each sentence using a word from the given list in place of one in brackets.
[acquired, caught, earned, coaxed, became, delicious, handsome, enjoyable, scored, kind]
1. My sister (gets) two hundred dollars a week.
Direct and indirect object: position
Some verbs can be followed by two objects a direct object and an indirect object.
Subject + verb + indirect object + direct object
The President awarded John a gold medal. (indirect object John; direct object a gold me
Verbs Exercise For Kids
Fill in the blanks with suitable verbs.
1. A doctor patients.
2. Bullocks . carts.
3. I . my holidays at my uncles place.
4. An ostrich cannot .
5. Hens . eggs.
6. A lion does not grass.
7. In the morning, most people . a newspaper
Forming a complex sentence with an adverb clause
A complex sentence must have a principal clause and one or more subordinate clauses. The subordinate clause
may be a noun clause, an adjective clause or an adverb clause.
We can form a complex sentence by c
Conditional clauses exercise
Fill in the blanks with appropriate conditional verb forms.
1. If you . hard, you will get a first class.
c) had studied
2. If I the key, I will give it to you.
c) had found
3. If we now, w
Miscellaneous grammar mistakes
Here are some grammar mistakes often committed by ESL students.
Incorrect: How do you do? Quite well, thank you.
The correct reply to this question is to repeat How do you do? only.
Incorrect: She is running seventeen.
Inversion of subject and auxiliary verb
In several different structures the auxiliary verb comes before the subject. This is usually referred to as inversion.
Written questions have the following word order: auxiliary verb + subject + main verb.
What are verbal nouns?
A verbal noun is a noun derived from a verb. It exhibits all of the properties of ordinary nouns and none of the
properties of verbs.
A verbal noun can have plural forms just like a noun. It can also occur with determiners and adjec
Infinitives without to
We usually put the marker to before the infinitive.
I want to go.
She wants to sing.
It is nice to meet you.
In some cases we use the infinitive without to.
After modal auxiliary verbs
The infinitive is used without to after modal a
PENGERTIAN DASAR DALAM STATISTIKA
A. Statistika, Statistik, Statistika Deskriptif
1. Pengertian Statistika
Statistika adalah bagian dari matematika yang secara khusus membicarakan caracara pengumpulan, analisis dan penafsiran data. Dengan kata lain,
1CAPTULO I: EL PROBLEMA
1.1 Planteamiento del problema:
Uno de los problemas que en la actualidad est ocasionando ms dao a nivel
mundial es el calentamiento global, el cual da a da se agudiza como consecuencia de
las grandes emisiones de gases de efecto i
Actualmente uno de los desafos medioambientales que afronta la
humanidad a nivel mundial es el calentamiento de la atmsfera, dicho factor se
debe entre otros, al incremento en el uso de los combustibles fsiles y
automotores en las ciudades, lo
Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Educacin Superior
Instituto Universitario de Tecnologa
Dr. Federico Rivero Palacio
Departamento de Procesos Qumicos
Mencin: Tecnologa y Diseo
OBTENCIN DE ETANOL MAYOR AL 95% DE PUREZA MEDIANTE
UNA DESTILACIN COMPLEJA A