ORGANIZING
1. WHAT IS ORGANIZING?
Organizing is the function of management that involves developing an organizational structure
and allocating human resources to ensure the accomplishment of objectives. The structure of
the organization is the framework w
SUB UNIT:
KUMPULAN:
NAMA PROGRAM:
TARIKH:
TEMPAT:
MASA:
KEKUATAN PROGRAM
KELEMAHAN PROGRAM
PELUANG
ANCAMAN
CADANGAN PENAMBAHBAIKAN:
_
_
_
.
Pengarah Projek
Nama:
Pengesahan Jululatih
Nama:
No. Matrik
Objectives
Definition communication
Analyze the two models of communication
Explain the elements of the communication process
Communication In Speech
(from Latin "communis", meaningto share)
is defined as a process by which we assign and
convey meaning
CONTINOUS: ARTICLE: Description on Places
The Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA)
Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) is one of Asia's major
aviation hubs and is a destination in itself. It is located at the top of the southern
corridor of Pen
DARSHINI A/P RAWINDRAN
232233
ENTRY 4
1. Chua, J. (2013, March 8). People commit crime for selfish reasons. Retrieved on March
7, 2015 from http:/ourmiowmiowworld.blogspot.com/2013/03/sample-essay-for-muetwriting-paper-2.html
2. Franky. (2013, March). Man
Reference
1. Chua, J. (2013, March 8). People commit crime for selfish reasons. Retrieved on
March 7, 2014 from http:/ourmiowmiowworld.blogspot.com/2013/03/sample-essayfor-muet-writing-paper-2.html
2. Franky. (2013, March). Man's careless attitude is the
DARSHINI A/P RAWINDRAN 232233
Entry 3
Man's careless attitude is the main cause for the destruction of the environment.
In this modern civilization, man struggles to survive the high cost of living expenses,
which significantly increases with each passing
Darshini A/p Rawindran 232233
The world today is turning more to electronic communications such as the e-mail,
Facebook and Short Message System (SMS). What is your opinion of this growing
trend? Discuss.
Entry 1
Article 1
First and foremost, the world to
IFM QUIZ 1
Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1. The commonly accepted goal of the MNC is to:
a. maximize short-term earnings.
b. maximize shareholder wealth.
c. min
META-ANALYSIS
191
individuals from five randomized trials and statin versus control on 129, 526 individuals in 21 trials. In both the studies, the reduction of LDL per 1.0 mmol/L after one
year of treatment was found to be significant.
Aspirin and cancer
SURVIVAL ANALYSIS
203
Thus, the hazard functions for both the individuals depend on time and the confounders. But, at any point of time, their relative value depends only on the confounders.
Exercises
13.1. The observed survival times ti in months for 12
194
META-ANALYSIS
12.5
Alternative estimators for 2
An alternative estimator for this variance component was suggested by DerSimonian
and Laird (1986) for the case of known 2i . The final estimators for 2 and are
k
obtained by replacing 2i with s2i . With
NONPARAMETRIC STATISTICS
209
0.036 and 0.018 respectively. The null hypothesis that both the treatments are
equally effective can be rejected at the 3.6 percent level of significance.
For the t-test, the average and standard deviation of the actual 16 dif
198
13.2
SURVIVAL ANALYSIS
Survival and hazard functions
With the random variable T representing time of an event, the Survival probability or
Survival function
S t =P T t
t0
(13.1)
is the probability of surviving beyond time t. The hazard function
ht =
S
206
NONPARAMETRIC STATISTICS
Example 14.1 The ranks (u, v) of the heights and weights (x, y) in Table 1.1 of the
sample of n = 20 boys are as follows:
u
v
u
v
u
v
u
v
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
6.5
6.5
8
9
10
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14.5
14.5
11.5
11.5
13
14
15
16
1
FURTHER TOPICS
15.3
217
Least significant difference (LSD) for a pair of
treatment effects
In several medical experiments, the difference between the effects of a treatment and
control or a pair of treatments is examined. For the one-way balanced classifi
META-ANALYSIS
195
can be considered for testing the hypothesis H0 2 = 0. From Satterthwaites (1946)
approximation presented in Appendix A.12, s2b and s2 follow independent Chisquare
distributions with f1 and f2 degrees of freedom respectively, where
f1 =
202
SURVIVAL ANALYSIS
Example 13.3 The numbers at risk and having the event for two treatments at ten
time intervals, the expected numbers e1i and variances v1i are as follows.
i
n1i
o1i
n2i
o2i
ni
oi
ni oi
e1i
v1i
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
25
24
22
20
18
15
1
212
NONPARAMETRIC STATISTICS
Row (i)
Column (j)
1 2 3 k
1 1 0 1 1 0
1 0 1 1 0 1
.
.
.
1
2
.
.
n
Column
total Cj
Row total Ri
R1
R2
Rn
C1 C2 C3 Ck
For the hypothesis in (14.5), Cochrans test statistic is given by
k
k
k k1
Cj C
1
Q=
n
k
n
Ri
1
k1
2
k
Cj
1
204
SURVIVAL ANALYSIS
this expression. Approximate 1 percent upper and lower confidence limits (cu,
cl) for ln (tm) are obtained from
ln S tm S E ln S tm
The confidence limits for S(tm) are given by e cl ,e cu .
Confidence limits for S(tm) can be directly
192
META-ANALYSIS
i = 1, 2, , k , with the overall mean can be considered. The difference of the
mean i at the ith location from the overall mean is denoted by the fixed effect
i. The random error i is assumed to follow the normal distribution with mean z
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE AND COVARIANCE
Asia
11
South East Asia
27
45.93
26.25
31.00
24.12
189
5.49
4.22
6.98
3.72
(a) Perform the ANOVA for both the private and total expenditures and examine
the differences among the averages for the five regions.
(b) Irres
META-ANALYSIS
193
15
From these summary figures, w = 5 59,
wi yi = 96 79 and yw = 17 31. The sample
1
variance of yw and its S.E. are 1 w = 0 1789 and 0.423 respectively.
12.4
Random effects model for combining
the estimates
To combine the above type of e
FURTHER TOPICS
219
The hypothesis H0 L = 0 for any of the contrasts can be tested through the statistic
tn k = L S E L . Even if the F-test of the ANOVA procedure does not reject the
hypothesis of the equality of the k means, the t-test may lead to reject
NONPARAMETRIC STATISTICS
211
The estimates of P1 and P2 respectively are b b + c and c b + c . Under H0, the
estimate of the common proportion becomes b + c 2. As in (14.3), the test statistic
for the null hypothesis of the equality of P1 and P2 is given
208
NONPARAMETRIC STATISTICS
measurements (X1, X2) can be ranks of the type (1, 2), (High, Low) and (Yes, No).
(4) The individuals in each pair should be similar with respect to age and healthrelated characteristics. (5) As has been shown in the literatur
SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES
227
5.8. For the confidence probability 1 = 0 95, the percentiles of the F-distribution
with (22, 14) d.f are (0.40, 2.81). We find the following confidence limits for the
ratios of the population variances of the second and first g