RE PORT ON LI-WI
SUBMITTED: ROOL NO
SADAF SHAHZADI 15331556-050
MARIA YOUSAF 15331556-094
SUBMITTED TO:
MUBISHIR HUSSAN
DEPARTMENT:
IT (BS 4TH
)
Table of Contents
Contents
1. Introduction
1
2. Architecture of Li-Fi system
3
3. Working of Li-Fi
5
4.
Why the Monopolist have no supply curve?
Economists recognize four market structures: perfect competition, monopolistic competition,
oligopoly and monopoly. Perfect competition and monopoly are opposite structures. Under
perfect competition, there are man
Explain the basic requirements that must be met for a contract to be enforceable?
A contact is nothing but a document between two parties. This document is an agreement
between two parties. In order to be enforceable, the contract must contain seven impor
Academic Entrepreneurs: critical issues and lessons for Europe
The straightforward definition of AE represents scientists as individuals free of any contractual
engagement, who must decide whether or not to activate a contract with a business company.
Thi
Explain how unemployment changes over the business cycle. Why do these
changes occur?
Business cycles are the repetitive expansions and contractions of activity within economies. The
unemployment level of an economy is the measurement of people who are lo
How is Social Security awarded in the United States?
In United States Social Security is the commonly term used for the old age people, unemployed
and disable people. The original social security act was signed into law by President Franklin
Roosevelt. In
How power is divided between the federal government and the states
governments?
Modern democracies divide governmental power in two general ways just like United States,
use a combination of both structures. The first and more common mechanism shares powe
Define a Partnership:
A partnership is an arrangement in which two or more individuals share the profits and
liabilities of a business venture. Partnership is a strategic agreement or bond between two or
more people. Various arrangements are possible in a
What is an economic variable?
Economic variable refers to any data accounted for in an economic model. An economic variable is a kind
of measurement that helps to determine how an economy functions. For example population, poverty
rate, inflation, and ava
Why are appreciation messages important? What should they include?
Saying thank you its ordinary behavior and a basically politeness that takes one minute. It
costs nothing, not by any means exertion. But on the other hand it's a standout amongst the
most
What is the difference between ethical dilemma and ethical lapse?
An ethical dilemma is when someone is in a situation and are forced to make a decision based
on policies and procedure even though the outcome may not be favorable to the parties in
involve
CS502-Fundamentals of Algorithms
Lecture No.20
Lecture No.20
We do not want to calculate m entries recursively. So how should we proceed? We will
fill m along the diagonals. Here is how. Set all m[i, i] = 0 using the base condition.
Compute cost for multi
CS502-Fundamentals of Algorithms
Lecture No.44
Lecture No.44
Complexity Theory
So far in the course, we have been building up abag of tricks for solving algorithmic problems.
Hopefully you have a better idea of how to go about solving such problems. What
CS502-Fundamentals of Algorithms
Lecture No.15
Lecture No.15
4.4 In-place, Stable Sorting
An in-place sorting algorithm is one that uses no additional array for storage. A sorting
algorithm is stable if duplicate elements remain in the same relative posit
CS502-Fundamentals of Algorithms
Lecture No.43
Lecture No.43
Complexity Theory
So far in the course, we have been building up abag of tricks for solving algorithmic problems.
Hopefully you have a better idea of how to go about solving such problems. What
CS502-Fundamentals of Algorithms
Lecture No.04
Lecture No. 4
1.10.1 Analysis of the brute-force maxima algorithm.
Assume that the input size is n, and for the running time we will count the number of time that any element
of P is accessed. Clearly we go t
CS502-Fundamentals of Algorithms
Lecture No.07
Lecture No.7
We have established that f(n) n2. Lets show why f(n) is not in some other
asymptotic class. First, lets show that f(n) (n). Show that f(n) (n). If this were
true, we would have had to satisfy bot
CS502-Fundamentals of Algorithms
Lecture No.13
Lecture No.13
4.3 Quicksort
Our next sorting algorithm is Quicksort. It is one of the fastest sorting algorithms known
and is the method of choice in most sorting libraries. Quicksort is based on the divide a
CS502-Fundamentals of Algorithms
Lecture No.45
Lecture No.45
Complexity Theory
So far in the course, we have been building up abag of tricks for solving algorithmic problems.
Hopefully you have a better idea of how to go about solving such problems. What
CS502-Fundamentals of Algorithms
Lecture No.12
Lecture No.12
4.2.2 Heapsort Algorithm
We build a max heap out of the given array of numbers A[1.n]. We repeatedly extract
the the maximum item from the heap. Once the max item is removed, we are left with a
CS502-Fundamentals of Algorithms
Lecture No.06
Lecture No.6
Asymptotic Notation
You may be asking that we continue to use the notation () but have never defined it.
Lets remedy this now. Given any function g(n), we define (g(n) to be a set of
functions th
CS502-Fundamentals of Algorithms
Lecture No.38
Lecture No. 38
8.6.1 Dijkstras Algorithm
Dijkstras algorithm is a simple greedy algorithm for computing the single-source shortest-paths to all
other vertices. Dijkstras algorithm works on a weighted directed
CS502-Fundamentals of Algorithms
Lecture No.17
Lecture No.17
6.2 Dynamic Programming
Dynamic programming is essentially recursion without repetition. Developing a dynamic
programming algorithm generally involves two separate steps:
Formulate problem recu
CS502-Fundamentals of Algorithms
Lecture No.25
Lecture No. 25
7.2.2 Huffman Encoding: Correctness
Huffman algorithm uses a greedy approach to generate a prefix code T that minimizes the
expected length B(T) of the encoded string. In other words, Huffman a
CS502-Fundamentals of Algorithms
Lecture No.18
Lecture No.18
6.3.3 Edit Distance: Dynamic Programming Algorithm
Suppose we have an m-character string A and an n-character string B. Define E(i, j) to
be the edit
distance between the first i characters of A
CS502-Fundamentals of Algorithms
Lecture No.23
Lecture No. 23
Greedy Algorithms
An optimization problem is one in which you want to find, not just a solution, but the best
solution.
Search techniques look at many possible solutions. E.g. dynamic programmi
CS502-Fundamentals of Algorithms
Lecture No.02
Lecture No. 2
1.7 Model of Computation
Another goal that we will have in this course is that our analysis be as independent as possible of the
variations in machine, operating system, compiler, or programming
CS502-Fundamentals of Algorithms
Lecture No.09
Lecture No. 9
3.1.2 The Iteration Method for Solving Recurrence Relations
Floor and ceilings are a pain to deal with. If n is assumed to be a power of 2 (2k = n),
this will simplify the recurrence to
The iter
CS502-Fundamentals of Algorithms
Lecture No.03
Lecture No.3
1.8 Example: 2-dimension maxima
Let us do an example that illustrates how we analyze algorithms. Suppose you want to buy a car. You want
the pick the fastest car. But fast cars are expensive; you
CS502-Fundamentals of Algorithms
Lecture No.19
Lecture No.19
6.4 Chain Matrix Multiply
Suppose we wish to multiply a series of matrices:
A1A2 . . .An
In what order should the multiplication be done? A p q matrix A can be multiplied
with a q r matrix
B. Th