farm/business records, including records of buying and selling, etc. Include
physical, human, business, and tax records. This area may involve setting
standards for certain enterprises or segme
Investment banks like African Development Bank (AfDB), Asian Development Bank
(ADB), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), European
Investment Bank (EIB), Japanese Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC), World
Bank (WB) have environm
1. Concentrate on one key area at a time (a manger deals in a multitude of
different problems and opportunities, but devotes more time and effort on a
2. Are willing to take calculated risks (as a manager have to take some wellthought ou
Figure 4.8: Transfers in cash and in kind. Figure adapted by author from BVFD.
BVFD: read Appendix part 3 and Maths A5.1.
The section of the appendix entitled ordinal utility and indifference curves
introduces utility functions. As i
Compliance Monitoring: This form of monitoring employs a periodic sampling
method, or continuous recording of specific environmental quality indicators or
pollution levels to ensure project compliance with recommended environmental
The public reviews and comments on draft EIA study report. The public provides
input to design and survey.
Detailed Survey and Design
Integration of Environmental Mitigation Measures
Detailed design made available to the public.
Construction and Operation
Production of goods and . What to produce: enterprise
choice and combination
. How much to produce: Amount to
produce of each crop
. How to produce: Amounts of
inputs to use on each crop. How to
combine them, how to co-ordinate
Collection of data and information
The identification of problem should be followed by gathering of facts, data,
information and also observations pertaining to the problem. The sources for
data:- from own farm records; the local extension office; bull
What knowledge and skills are needed to become a better management?
Why the difference among profits made by managers?
THE SCOPE OF THE MANAGER OR FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES
Once the management decision is made, it has to be translated into
Goals give purpose and to decisions and actions. They must be defined so as to
serve as a measure of success or failure. Some suggestions for goal setting are;
1. Choose practical goals (set realistic and attainable goals)
2. Have some specific goals (wel
but it is the total return from all enterprises that counts its success or failure. A
proper understanding of farm management principle helps in selection
combination and execution of enterprises, which are consistent to a sound
agricultural policy. The m
Apart from stipulating responsibility of signatory countries with regards to
proposals that have transboundary impacts, it describes the principles, provisions,
procedures to be followed and list of activities, contents of documentation and
criteria of si
The aim of EIA is not to carry out exhaustive studies on all environmental impacts
for all projects. Scoping is used to identify the key issues of concern at an early
stage in the planning process (Ahmed & Sammy, 1987). The results of scoping will
without spending any more money. The consumer should continue to adjust their
spending in this way until MUX/PX=MUY/PY. It is important to understand the
intuitive explanation of the consumers decision, as well as being familiar with the
1st Semester 2003
other goods. For Susan, potatoes are a Giffen good, in that if her income is fixed
in some way (i.e. ignoring the fact that she sells potatoes and just fixing her
income at some value) her consumption of p
FARM MANAGEMENT AND ITS ROLE IN AGRICULTURE
Basics of Management
Management in general has varied definitions. In a broader sense Management
is viewed as those activities relating to the organisation and operation of a firm
for the attainment of specific
Draw Up Potential
Select Plan & Put Into
Analyze and evaluate
progress of plan over
A logical analysis
6.1 Social Impact Assessment (SIA)
Social Impact Assessment (SIA) includes the processes of analysing, monitoring
and managing the intended and unintended social consequences, both positive
and negative, of planned interventions and any social change proc
(Price per sandwich = p1) (Price per sandwich = p2)
Figure 4.5: Deriving the individual demand curve.
BVFD: read the second part of the appendix: deriving demand curves. This
explains why, for normal goods, a fall in price leads to an increase in quantity
Purpose of funds/ quantity and
Source of financing
Forecasting future needs
Depreciation of assets
Expansion / contraction
2) Gather objective facts and arrange them in relevant order
3) Evaluate and analyse the data
4) Draw conclusions or make decisions based upon the analysis
5) Take appropriate action.
The other factors remaining equal the differences in management may res
Step 1 Preferences (What the individual wants to do)
Step 2 Budget Constraint (What the individual can do)
Step 3 Decision (Taking constraints into account, the individual attempts to reach
the highest level of satisfaction)
Figure 4.3: Consumer choice an
proposed project to eliminate adverse environmental impacts, offset them or
reduce them to acceptable levels. The EMP should also include the actions needed
to implement these measures, including the following features:
Mitigation based on the environment
there can be danger in this when excessive consultation is done and some
unjustifiable impacts included in the ToR.
4.3 Baseline data collection
The term "baseline" refers to the collection of background information on the
biophysical, social and economic
Activity SG4.10 Draw the indifference curves for perfect complements together
with a budget line. Now draw a new budget line for a change in the price of one of
the goods. Indicate the income and substitution effects (if any) of the price change.
between the total willingness to pay for that amount minus what is actually paid
the prevailing price times the quantity.
Demand curve for x
At A, MRS = Px/Py = 4/2 = 2
Figure 4.6: Willingness to pay and
0 46 5
Figure 4.7: Deriving the market demand curve.
Complements and substitutes
BVFD: read section 5.5 of and the part of 5.3 which addresses cross- price
elasticities of demand.
The section on complements and substitute
The World Bank directives requires systematic comparison of proposed investment
design in terms of site, technology, processes etc in terms of their impacts and
feasibility of their mitigation, capital, recurrent costs, suitability under local
provisions, procedures to be followed and list of activities, contents of
documentation and criteria of significance that apply.
b) Rio Declaration (1992).
Principle 17 of Rio Declaration on Environment and Development calls for use of
EIA as a national d
most of the developing countries are still adopting it (Lee, 1995). Multilateral and
bilateral lenders included EIA requirements in their project eligibility criteria
1.2 EIA in developing countries
Until recently, EIA as a new concept was n
Farmer (Manager) on a farm therefore has to be aware of these limitations placed
by the biological and physical laws of nature.
Weather, insects, diseases and variable prices are some examples of factors
placing the farmer (manager) in a position of makin
multi- disciplinary. However, as the team should not be rigidly imposed on the
consultant. If international experts are doing the EIA, it is important to make
provision for local capacity building in the ToR. Apart from enabling in-country
expertise to be
analysis shows that there is shift from extensive to intensive farming near the
cities with the result that the cost per unit tend to decline because of the following
a) The overhead cost is spread over more units.
b) The method of cultivation is
although that conclusion may be either (1) to do something, i.e. launch a new
activity, (2) to do nothing, or (3) to go back and reformulate the problem, gather
more information, or do further analysis.
Normally, we expect that the alternative showing the
1) Farm Management is that branch of agricultural economics, which deals with
the business principles, and practices of farming with an object of obtaining
the maximum possible return from the farm as a unit under a sound-farming
2) "Farm Manag