Dams
A dam is a hydraulic structure of fairly
impervious material built across a river to
create a reservoir on its upstream side for
impounding water for various purposes.
A dam and a reservoir are complements of
each other.
Dams are generally constructe
Dams
Forces acting on Dams (Gravity)
Dead load
It comprises the major resisting force
It includes the weight of the concrete or masonry
or both plus that of the appurtenances such
weight of gates and bridge.
Usually a unit length of the dam is consider
Earthen dams
An earth dam is made of earth (or soil).
It resists the forces exerted upon it mainly due to
shear strength of the soil.
Although the weight of the earth dam also helps in
resisting the forces, the structural behaviour of an
earth dam is
Modular Venturi
Flume
It is the type of V. F. in which the width of throat is
decreased to such an extent that the depth of water
in throat is equal to critical depth.
The velocity of flow through the throat
corresponding to critical depth is also critica
03/10/2011
Dr. Muhammad Ali Shamim
ali.shamim@uettaxila.edu.pk
051-9047652; Internal 652
1
03/10/2011
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Specific energy at a particular section is
defined with respect
p
to channel bottom i.e
z=0.
V 2
E = y +
2g
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For a relatively wide channel with unifor
20/09/2011
Dr. Muhammad Ali Shamim
ali.shamim@uettaxila.edu.pk
051-9047652; Internal 652
`
Solid understanding of open channel flow
`
An introduction to hydraulic modelling
`
Sediment transport in open channels
`
Various types of Dams and forces acting on
10/22/2010
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Weirs are overflow structures build across
channels to measure the volumetric rate of
flow of water.
It is an obstruction that causes the liquid to
rise behind the weir and flow over it.
The crest of the measuring weir is normally
perpend
14/10/2010
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Transport of water between two points in a
safe and cost effective manner
Includes economical safety and aesthetic
aspects.
The channel having the least wetted
perimeter for the given area has the
maximum conveyance
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14/10/2010
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Hydraulic Jump
Most important phenomena in Hydraulics
Occurs when supercritical flow
velocity reduced to subcritical
The result is marked by a discontinuity of
surface characterised by a steep upward
slope of the water surface broken
throughout by violent
10/7/2010
Dr. Muhammad Ali Shamim
ali.shamim@uettaxila.edu.pk
051-9047652; Internal 652
1
10/7/2010
dh dz dy 1 dV 2
=
+ +
dx dx dx 2 g dx
`
Since V=q/y,
1 d (V 2 ) 1 d q 2
q 2 1 dy
2 =
=
2 g dx
2 g dx y
g y 3 dx
2
10/7/2010
Substituting this and the S
Dr. Muhammad Ali Shamim
ali.shamim@uettaxila.edu.pk
051-9047652; Internal 652
`
Solid understanding of open channel flow
`
An introduction to hydraulic modelling
`
Sediment transport in open channels
`
Various types of Dams and forces acting on
them
By th
Dr. Muhammad Ali Shamim
ali.shamim@uettaxila.edu.pk
051-9047652; Internal 652
Channel Tranistions
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A channel transition is defined as change in
channel cross section e.g. change in channel
width and/or channel bottom slope.
May be accomplished over a
TRANSITION CURVES
/SPIRALS
Engr Ilyas Sheikh
Lecturer
UCET & BZU Multan
A curve of varying radius is known as a
transition curve. At one end its radius is
infinity (zero) and at other end its radius
has definite values. Other names,
(1) Spirals
(2) Easeme
Modern Equipments of
Survey:
EDM
Total Station.
Total Station with (GUI) image
Prism Less Total Stations image
Total Station with Camera (For 3D Image
Generation) image
GPS (Global Positioning System) image
Gyro Station image
Automatic level image
Laser L
Global Positioning
System (GPS)
What is the Global
Positioning System
When people talk
about "a GPS," they
usually mean a GPS
receiver. The Global
Positioning System
(GPS) is actually a
constellation of 27
Earth-orbiting satellites
(24 in operation and
t
CURVES
introducti
on
An arc with infinite radius , provided b/w
intersecting straights to avoid the abrupt
change of direction both in horizontal &
vertical plane.
CLASSIFICATION
CURVES
CIRCULAR
CURVES
VERTICAL
CURVES
VERTICAL CURVES
Objective
Curves are
Adjustments in
Triangulation
Spherical Excess
In geodetic surveying the measured angles for a
triangle are spherical angles, each triangle will
contain more than 180 the amount greater than
180 is termed as the spherical excess and is about
1 for each 75
CURVE
S
Engr Ilyas Sheikh
Lecturer
UCET & BZU Multan
COMPOUND CURVES
When it is not possible to connect the two tangents by
one circular curve it becomes necessary to take a suitable
common tangent and set out two curves of different radii
bending in the
Lecture#5
Adjustments
Using
Probability
Triangulation
Adjustments
Observed Quantities are classified as
1.
Independent
2.
Conditional
Independent Quantity:
Value is independent of other values.
Reduced levels of several Bench Marks.
II.
Conditional Quanti
Modern Equipments of
Survey:
Automatic level image
Total Station.
EDM
Total Station with (GUI) image
GPS (Global Positioning System) image
Gyro Station image
Laser Levels image
Prism Less Total Stations image
Total Station with Camera (For 3D Image
Genera
Curves
Compound Curves
When it is not possible to connect the two tangents by one
circular curve it becomes necessary to take a suitable
common tangent and set out two curves of different radii
bending in the same direction to connect the rare and
forward
VERTICAL
CURVES
Engr Ilyas Sheikh
Lecturer
UCET & BZU Multan
VERTICAL CURVES
Curves are needed to provide smooth
transition between grade lines of
highways and railroads. because these
curves exist in vertical planes they are
called vertical curves.
The f
Tacheometry
1
STADIA/ TACHEOMETRY.
Rapid and efficient way of indirectly
measuring distances and elevation
differences
Total station and GPS receivers designed
for rapid and extremely accurate real-time
positioning system, putting stadia method
into bac
Triangulation Adjustments:
Observed quantities are classified as;
Independent Quantities.
Conditioned Quantities.
Independent Quantities:
Quantity is independent of other values.
Reduced levels of several Bench Marks
Conditioned Quantities:
Quantities a
Curves
Nomenclature and Formula
for Circular Curve
Curves
There are two types of curves.
1.
Horizontal Curves (Horizontal Alignment)
2.
Vertical Curves (Vertical Alignment)
Horizontal Curves:
o
Simple Circular Curve
o
Compound Circular Curves
o
Reverse Ci
Department of Civil Engineering
University Collage of Engineering And
TECHNOLOGY
Bahauddin Zikariya University Multan
Field Astronomy
Contents
Introduction
Astronomical Observations
Theory of Engineering Astronomy
Important Heavenly Bodies
Celestial Spher
photogrammetry
DEFINITION
PHOTOGRAMMETRY IS THE SCIENCE
OF QUANTITTIVE ANALYSIS OF
MEASUREMENTS FROM
PHOTOGRAPHS.
IT DERIVED FROM 3 GREEK WORDS:
PHOTOS-LIGHT,GRAMMA-TO
DRAW,METRON-TO MEASURE.
WORKING
BY TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS FROM AT
LEAST TWO DIFFERENT
LOCA
INTER-VISIBILTY
INTERVISIBILITY AND HEIGHT OF
STATIONS
Level surface:Any surface parallel to mean spherical
surface of the earth , curved surface
every surface, every point on which is
equidistance from centre of earth
normal to plumb line at all points.
Triangulation
(Survey Method)
Horizontal Positioning
Traversing
Triangulation
Trilateration
Intersection
Resection
Satellite Positioning
Triangulation and
Traversing
Triangulation is a method of control surveying.
First carried out by Snell, a Dutchman, i