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A finite automata consists of 3 components an input tape, a reading head and a
finite control system. Reading head reads the input from the input tape and the
finite control system decides the action. The finite control system begins at the
initial state
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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission (226388CP120051DECOMENIUSC21). This publication reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot
be held responsible for any use which may be made of the informa
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The field of proof theory includes the study of secondorder arithmetic and Peano
arithmetic, as well as formal theories of the natural numbers weaker than Peano
arithmetic. One method of classifying the strength of these weak systems is by
characterizing
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Turingcomplete sets 4. These hierarchy levels are defined inductively,
n+1 contains just all sets which are recursively enumerable relative to n;
1 contains the recursively enumerable sets. The index sets given here are even
complete for their levels, th
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reducibilities are those where a reduction process may not terminate for all
oracles; Turing reducibility is one example.
The strong reducibilities include:
Oneone reducibility
A is oneone reducible (or 1reducible) to B if there is a total computable i
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the most difficult problems in NP, in the sense that they are the ones most likely
not to be in P. Because the problem P = NP is not solved, being able to reduce a
known NPcomplete problem, 2, to another problem, 1, would indicate that there
is no known
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Automata theory is a subject matter that studies properties of various types of
automata. For example, the following questions are studied about a given type of
automata.
Which class of formal languages is recognizable by some type of automata?
(Recogniza
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The field of Kolmogorov complexity and algorithmic randomness was developed
during the 1960s and 1970s by Chaitin, Kolmogorov, Levin, MartinLf and
Solomonoff (the names are given here in alphabetical order; much of the research
was independent, and the u
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Table 4: Transformation in Technology
1700  1900
1900  2000
2000 
Economics
Agriculture
Manufacture
Information
Technology
Plow
Machine
Computer
Output
Food
Good
Information
Resource
Land
Capital
Knowledge
Unit
Family
Company
Network
Energy
Muscle
Fos
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On the other hand another medium that causes the death of distance is the diffusion of production into
the whole world. Currently, through FDI, MNCs have diffused their productions to many countries. Hence
a Japan car can be produced in Turkey. This in tu
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enumerable classes of functions are learnable while the class REC of all
computable functions is not learnable. Many related models have been considered
and also the learning of classes of recursively enumerable sets from positive data
is a topic studied
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Julia Robinson) Matiyasevich's theorem, which implies that Hilbert's tenth
problem has no effective solution; this problem asked whether there is an effective
procedure to decide whether a Diophantine equation over the integers has a
solution in the integ
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age of the universe. Even with a much faster computer, the program would only be
useful for very small instances and in that sense the intractability of a problem is
somewhat independent of technological progress. Nevertheless, a polynomial time
algorithm
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priority arguments can be technical and difficult to follow, it has traditionally been
considered desirable to prove results without priority arguments, or to see if
results proved with priority arguments can also be proved without them. For
example, Kumm
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is the range of some computable function. The recursively enumerable sets,
although not decidable in general, have been studied in detail in recursion theory.
Relative computability and the Turing degrees
Recursion theory in mathematical logic has traditi
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The integer factorization problem is the computational problem of determining
the prime factorization of a given integer. Phrased as a decision problem, it is the
problem of deciding whether the input has a factor less than k. No efficient integer
factori
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Marshall McLuhan through global village conceptualization and Ohmae through crossborder
civilization definition designate the formation of global culture.
This resemblance certainly does not indicate that local cultures are dependent on global culture. L
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Post also showed that some of them are strictly intermediate under other
reducibility notions stronger than Turing reducibility. But Post left open the main
problem of the existence of recursively enumerable sets of intermediate Turing
degree; this proble
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low performances. Countries that have low potentials and performances are generally those from Africa.
2.2.1.3. Production and Competitiveness
In recent years, global economy transformed with the elimination of obstacles against floes of goods,
services,
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q0 is the start state, that is, the state of the automaton before any input
has been processed, where q0 Q.
F is a set of states of Q (i.e. FQ) called accept states.
Input word
An automaton reads a finite string of symbols a1,a2,., an , where ai ,
which
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CONTENT
1. Defining Globalization.4
1.1. Understanding Globalization: Behind the Curtain.4
1.1.1. Historical Background.5
1.1.2. Stages.6
1.1.3. Increasing Trade as a Vehicle.7
1.1.4. Multinational Companies as a Transporter: Theories of MNCs and FDI.8
1.
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Also w13 = w1w1w1
Languages
A language is a set of string all of which are chosen from some *, where is a
particular alphabet. This means that language L is subset of *. An example is
English language, where the collection of legal English words is a set
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China follow them. Although she is behind these countries, Turkey is a promising country with her
upward climb.
In the era of rapid globalization countries have incomes as much as they can compete. The world income
continuously increase but the shares tha
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Third Stage (1990): In the first two stages instable balances aroused. The number of
independent states increased, conflicts increased and accelerated. Identity conflicts reached to
peak in the underdeveloped countries.
The national markets of the West we
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These are used in text processing, compilers, and hardware design.
ContextFree Grammars.
These are used to define programming languages and in Artificial
Intelligence.
Turing Machines. These form a simple abstract model of a real
computer, such as your
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companies. Volatile prices constitute high risks for both companies. In case of a vertical integration of
these two companies the problems will disappear or be relieved.
1.1.4.2. Theories of FDI
FDI started to be analyzed as it partly substitutes and repr
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countries are highincome countries. In the year 2006 Norway had the highest nominal income of
$66,530 and Burundi had the lowest $100. In that year the average income in the world was $7,439. If
these income figures are recalculated according to purcha
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Connection to category theory
One can define several distinct categories of automata[3] following the automata
classification into different types described in the previous section. The
mathematical category of deterministic automata, sequential
machines
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of Michael O. Rabin and Anatoly Maltsev on algorithmic presentations of algebras,
and the negative solution to Hilbert's Tenth Problem. The more recent applications
include algorithmic randomness, results of Soare et al. who applied recursiontheoretic met
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each such copy starts running on one of the successor symbol from the state
according to the transition relation of the automaton. Such an automaton is
called a tree automaton.
Infinite tree input : The two extensions above can be combined, so the
automa