it is possible to mistake a whole hour, we can get some notion of the
importance of this illusion. Its explanation is difficult and it may
be merely a single instance of a whole series of unknown auditory
illusions resting on the same
opinions concerning the determination of its value-whether it is to
be determined by the physician or by the judge, and finally, how
little we know about suggestion anyway. Everything is assigned to
suggestion. In spite of the great li
with movement or are exposed by movement. During the movement
of certain bodies we can distinguish their form only under definite
conditions. As their movement increases they seem shorter in
the direction of movement and as it decrease
of his actions did not control his conduct, and lead him to
rule himself. The slightest excitation may awaken all his strongest
passion which then carry him away. Again, the slightest excuse
may turn him from what he has in mind. In th
the error. To question him may often be impossible because of the
distance, and may be useless because he no longer knows what he
said or wanted to say. When we consider what a tremendous amount
of work classical philologists, etc., ha
magnify the size of the small window of an inn that we may take it
to be as large as that of a sitting room. And if we have seen just one
window we think all are of the same form and are convinced that
the inn is a mansion. Or again, w
NOELLNER, F. Criminal-psychologische Denkwbrdigkeiten. Stuttgart,
PARIGOT, J. Moral Insanity in relation to Criminal Acts. N. Y., 1861.
PARMELEE, M. The Principlos of Anthropology and Sociology in their
Relations to Criminal Proc
and others-the capacity of some people to fall calmly asleep in
spite of tremendous excitement. Thus, Napoleon fell into deep
sleep during the most critical moment at Leipzig. This capacity is
sometimes cited as evidence of innocence.
senses so much as in the fact that an apperceptive idea is substituted
for the perceptive view. In hallucination every external event is
absent, and hence, what is seen is due to a stimulation of the periphery.
Some authorities believe
 Andrew Combe: Observations on Mental Derangement. Edinburgh
Things that are thought are expressed just as involuntarily during
intoxication, and thus the insults, etc., are accomplished.
What is never believed, but yet may be
to the old principle that every observation is not proof but means of
proof, and that it may be trusted only when it is confirmed by many
parallel actions which are really consistent. That even after that
mistakes are possible, is true
Irritation, causes crime, 77.
Isolation, effect of on character, 396;
on health, 397.
Issue, must be defined, 11.
Inventors as witnesses, 66.
JAMES, W., 187, 467.
Jealousy, in women, 351.
JESSEN, 186, 275, 482,
In connection with the cited incident of the estimation of the
moon's diameter, there is the illusion of Thomas Reid who saw
that the moon seemed as large as a plate when looked at with the
unhampered eye, but as large as a dollar when
perfectly correct, but my inferences are wrong. In the last instance,
even a photograph will show the stick in water as bent.
This difference in the nature of illusion is particularly evident
in those phenomena of expectation that peop
he used to see them at night in the dark so distinctly that he could
read them off.
Then there are illusions of touch which may be criminalistically
important. A movement of air may be taken for an approaching
man. A tight collar or cr
so that their confirmation by others is rare. On the other hand,
every one of us knows habits of his own or of his friends which
would not be believed when cited, and which would be very difficult
to prove when the need arose. The infl
a false estimate of length if we had been required to judge it. It is
also likely that we may have supposed an actual or suppository
line on the side of the gables of a house enclosed by angles of the
gables, to be short,-but until now
favor of most men is won by nothing so easily and completely as
by real or apparent devotion and interest. If this is done at all
cleverly, few can resist it, and the prepossession in their favor is
complete. How many are free of preju
Carpenter's frequently cited case of the officials who smelled a corpse
while a coffin was being dug up, until finally the coffin was found to
be empty, has many fellows. I once was making an examination of
a case of arson, and on appr
The use of our explanatory proposition is possible in all cases
which require determining the real or apparent participation of
some individual in a crime. If the degree of wisdom a man may be
credited with can be determined by means o
A study of the works of Darwin, Weismann, DeVries, etc., shows
us indubitably that no authority asserts the inheritance of great
alterations appearing for the first time in an individual. And as
to the inheritance of acquired character
whose attention I called to the matter confirmed my observation.
Such things are not indifferent, they show that really very different
sounds may be mistaken for one another, that the test of misunderstandings
may often lead to false r
like unnecessary cruelty and destruction. The knowledge
of this anticipatory image may give even a clew to the criminal,
for it may indicate the nature of the person who could act it out and
realize it. Also in our field there exists `
and then not one of the typical marks of terror appears. But it
betrays itself just as certainly by its icy indifference as by its own
proper traits. Just as passions transmute into their opposites,
so they carry a significant company
four hundred what should we say if we heard that in the evening
men meet half-naked women, embrace them vigorously, pull them
round, and bob and stamp through the hall with disgusting noise
until they must stop, pouring perspiration, g
saw an enormous pair of tailor's scissors half-covered by a letter.
It remained identical under a number of repeated glances. Only
when I thought vigorously that such a thing could not possibly be
in my room did it disappear. A few sca
It may be not unimportant to understand how names are altered.
Thus, I know a man who curiously enough was called Kammerdiener,
whose father was an immigrant Italian called Comadina, and I
know two old men, brothers, who lived in diffe
are prevented from reducing the changes of the retinal image to the
movement of our body or of our eyes. This reduction goes on so
unconsciously that we see the idea of the object and its condition
as a unit. Again, it is indubitable t
In the daily life such an open procedure is, of course, impossible,
and if the circumstances were to be taken for what they seem we
should frequently make mistakes. Everybody knows, e. g., how
very few happy marriages there are. But ho
head, or robbed him; frequently the ostensible reason for coming to
trial is the result of a long and far-reaching hatred. That this
emotion can go to any length is well known and it is therefore necessary,
though not always easy, to s
inclinations, roofs, etc., appear so steep in the distance that it is
said to be impossible to move on them without especial help. But
whoever does move on them finds the inclination not at all so great.
Hence, it is necessary, wheneve