o 9.1Soil processes important for nutrient
climates favor the growth of trees. In contrast, grasses are the
dominant native vegetation in subhumid and semiarid regions,
while shrubs and brush of various kinds dominate in arid areas.
Water is essential for all the major chemical weathering reaction
natural fertilisers led to a doubling of wheat yields in Western
e washed downward, leaving deposits of clay, humus, iron oxide,
carbonate, and gypsum, producing a distinct layer called the B
horizon. This is a somewhat arbitrary definition
Most soils derive from transported materials that have been
moved many miles by wind, water, ice and gravity.
Aeolian processes (movement by wind) are
capable of moving silt and fine sand many
hundreds of miles, forming loess soils (60
Darling, Janina K. (2004). "Panathenaic
Stadium, Athens". Architecture of Greece.
Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood
Publishing Group.ISBN 978-0-313-32152-8.
Retrieved 30 January 2009.
Dean, Amber R. (2009). Hauntings:
Representations of Vancouver
1800 and 1900.
Studies concerning soil formation
The scientists who studied the soil in connection with agricultural
practices had considered it mainly as a static substrate. However,
soil is the result of evolution from more ancient geological
, and American Imperialism.
Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-71869-2.
Government of Canda (23 December
Retrieved 16 March 2014.
Lindsay, Hillary Bain (4 April 2007). "Stolen
Games: 'No Olympics on Stolen Native
Land' Has Become the
by the low oxygen content of a high water table. While peat may
form sterile soils, muck soils may be very fertile.
Weathering of parent material
The weathering of parent material takes the form of physical
weathering (disintegration), chemical
In swales and depressions where runoff water tends to
concentrate, the regolith is usually more deeply weathered and
soil profile development is more advanced. However, in the lowest
landscape positions, water may saturate the regolith to such a
muck soils and results from preservation of plant residues
cause expansion and contraction of the
rock, splitting it along lines of weakness.
Water may then enter the cracks and freeze
and cause the physical splitting of material
along a path toward the
1. where clay has accumulated.
2. Angular and subangular: Blocky
peds are imperfect cubes, 5
50 mm, angular have sharp edges,
subangular have rounded edges.
Tend to form in the B-horizon where
clay has accumulated and indicate
poor water penetration.
contents of soils. Color is
recorded in the Munsell color
system as for instance
10YR3/4 Dusky Red.
Soil color is primarily influenced by soil mineralogy. Many soil
colours are due to various iron minerals. The development and
distribution of colour in a
or suspended materials that occupy the soil pore space is called
the soil solution. Since soil water is never pure
the ground after combustion. In about 1635, the Flemish
chemist Jan Baptist van Helmont thought he had proved water to
be the essential elem
and Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck.
Cumulose parent material is not moved but originates from
Of the above, hydrolysis and carbonation are the most effective.
Saprolite is a particular example of a residual soil formed from
o 8.3Buffering of soils
fossilized soils are preserved from as far back as the Archean.
Soil science has two basic branches of
study: edaphology and pedology. Edaphology is concerned with
the influence of soils on living things4.7Color
sand and smaller particles, especially in arid regions where there
is little plant cover. The type and amount of precipitation influence
soil formation by affecting the movement of ions and particles
through the soil, and aid in the devel
material. This includes peat and Hydrolysis is the transformation
of minerals into polar molecules by the splitting of intervening
water. This results in soluble acid-base pairs. For example, the
hydrolysis of orthoclase-feldspar transforms it to acid sil
"No Olympics on Stolen Native
Land". Revolutionary Hip-Hop Report.
Retrieved 31 March2014.
Richardson, N.J. (1992). "Panhellenic Cults
and Panhellenic Poets". In Lewis, D.M.;
Boardman, John; Davies, J.K. The Fifth
Century BC. Cambridge University
Golden Book of the Olympic Games. Milan:
Vallardi & Associati. ISBN 978-88-85202-351.
Preuss, Holger; Marcia Semitiel Garca
(2005). The Economics of Staging the
Olympics: A Comparison of the Games
19722008. Edward Elgar
Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84376-893-
soil structures called peds (a contraction of the word pedolith).
The adhesion of the soil textural components by organic
1. sodium soil
2. 100 mm prismlike.
3. Very coarse or very thick: >10 mm
platy, granular; >50 mm blocky;
>100 mm prismlike.
insidethegames the latest and most up to
date news and interviews from the world of
Olympic, Commonwealth and Paralympic
ATR Around the Rings the Business
Surrounding the Olympics
GamesBids.com An Authoritative Review
of Olympic Bid Business (hom
and 25 C in general and for
spruce in particular. In 2week-old white spruce seedlings
that were then grown for 6 weeks
in soil at temperatures of 15 C,
19 C, 23 C, 27 C, and 31 C;
shoot height, shoot dry weight,
stem diameter, root pen
"The Four Host First Nations Canada
2010". p. Canada's Games. Retrieved 31
Girginov, Vassil; Parry, Jim (2005). The
Olympic Games Explained: A Student Guide
to the Evolution of the Modern Olympic
Games. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-346047. Retr
soil compaction. Soil porosity consists
charges, that gives a soil its high retention capacity for water and
nutrients. Clay soils also resist wind and water erosion better than
silty and sandy soils, as the particles bond tightly to each other.
Sand is t
Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska
Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-1098-1.
Buchanon, Ian; Mallon, Bill (2006). Historical
Dictionary of the Olympic Movement.
Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780-8108-5574-8. Retrieved 20 March 2009.
Burkert, Walter (1
chemical exchanges between roots and soil and act as a reserve
cause soils to lose moisture. Plants can form new chemicals that
can break down minerals and improve the soil structure. The type
and amount of vegetation depends on climate, topography, soil
vital for plant
Incas was rediscovered in 1802, by Alexander von Humboldt.
This led to its mining and that of Chilean nitrate and to its
application to soil in the United States and Europe after 1840.
The work of Liebig was a revolution for agricultur
Humans impact soil formation by removing vegetation cover with
erosion as the result. Their tillage also mixes the different soil
layers, restarting the soil formation process as less weathered
material is mixed with the more developed upper
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Soil (disambiguation).
A represents soil; B representslaterite, a regolith; C
representssaprolite, a less-weathered regolith; the bottom-most
layer represents bedrock.
on problem with soils, reduces this space, preventing air and
water from reaching the plant roots and soil organisms.
Given sufficient time, an undifferientated soil will evolve a soil
profile which consists of two or more layers, referred to as
Soils can effectively remove impurities, kill disease agents, and
degrade contaminants. Typically, soils maintain a net absorption
of oxygenand methane, and undergo a net release of carbon
dioxide and nitrous oxide. Soils offer plants physical support, ai
-op. Retrieved 30 March2014.
Parezo, Nancy J. (2008). "A 'Special
Olympics': Testing Racial Strength and
Endurance at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase
Exposition". In Susan Brownell. The 1904
Anthropology Days and Olympic Games:
Sport, Race, and American Imp
Slack, Trevor (2004). The
Commercialisation of sport. New York:
Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7146-8078-1.
Retrieved 31 March 2009.
Spivey, Nigel Jonathan (2004). "Olympia:
the Origins". The Fifth Century BC. Oxford
University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280433-4.
the soil solution. Water is central to
the solution, precipitation and leaching of minerals from the soil
profile. Finally, water affects the type of vegetation that grows in a
soil, which in turn affects the development of the soil.
The most influential