A relationship that is defined in terms of
That is, the body of the rule contains the
same predicate name as the head.
pred_a() :- pred_b(), pred_a().
F u ji F o u n d a t io n
F u j
Agents and environments
PEAS (Performance measure,
Environment, Actuators, Sensors)
An agent is anything that can be viewed as perceiving
its environment through sens
Expert Systems (ES) are a popular and useful
application area in AI.
Having studied KRR, it is instructive to study ES to see a
practical manifestation of the principles learnt there.
What is an Expert
Enumerative: Traditional optimization and
Within a finite search space or discretized
infinite search space, look at objective
function value at every point in space one at
Attractive as mimicking human search.
Arithmetic does not fit nicely into the
logical scheme of things.
The concept of evaluating an arithmetic
expression is in contrast to the straight
pattern matching we have seen so far.
Prolog provides the built-in predicate 'is'
The AI Cycle
Almost all AI systems have the following
components in general:
Knowledge Representation and
The AI Cycle
Knowledge and its types
what the knowledg
Now that we have looked at knowledge representation, we
will look at mechanisms to reason on the knowledge once we
have represented it using some logical scheme.
Reasoning is the process of deriving logical conclusions from
List in Prolog
A shopping list
eggs, tea, milk, bread
In PROLOG we can write this as
[eggs, tea, milk, bread]
Each item in the list is called element
The elements may also be variables or
A list without any element is called
Main steps of GA
Step-2: Selection (for reproduction).
Genetic Algorithms: Stochastic Operators
Selection replicates the most successful solutions
found in a population at a rate p
Introduction to PROLOG
PROgramming LOGic designed in 1972
Philippe Roussel and Alain Colmerauer of the
University of Aix-Marseille and Robert Kowalski at
the University of Edinburgh
Algorithms + data structure = Programs