Demographics and Social Stratification
-Population and Size
*Population and Size
-The population of the U.S. is approximately 309 million today and is expected to surpass 320 million by 2015.
Family Decision Making
Family decision making is the process by
which decisions that directly or indirectly
involve two or more family members are
Family purchases are often compared to
organizational buying decisions. However, with
The Household Life :Young <35
CycleAmerican households follow much more complex and
varied cycles today. Therefore, researchers have developed
several models of the household lifecycle (HLC).
Each HLC stage presents unique needs and wants as well as
Specific traits of the stimulus such as size, shape and color affect interpretation.
Consumers appear to prefer stimuli that they perceive as easy to process.
Incongruity is an unexpected stimulus and increases attention.
The Nature of Perception
Information processing is a series of activities by which stimuli are
perceived, transformed into information, and stored.
Perception consists of the first three steps or stages of information
processing: exposure, attention, and
Emotions and Marketing Strategy
Marketers have always used emotions to guide the following on an intuitive level:
sales presentations, and
However, deliberate, systematic study of the relevance of emotions in marketing stra
Motivation is a drive state created by consumer interest and needs.
Product involvement indicates motivation or interest in a specific product category. Product
involvement can be temporary or enduring.
Smart banners are banner ads that
When it comes to marketing, what you see is not what you get.
Thats because interpretation often requires consumers to make
An inference goes beyond what is directly stated or presented.
Consumers use available data and the
Attention occurs when the stimulus activates one or more sensory receptor nerves, and the
resulting sensations go to the brain for processing.
Attention requires consumers to allocate limited mental resources toward information
Interpretation is the assignment of meaning to sensations.
Interpretation relates to how we comprehend and make sense of incoming
It is influenced by characteristics of the stimulus, the individual, and the
Emotion is the identifiable specific feeling, and affect is the liking/disliking
aspect of the specific feeling.
Emotions are strong, relatively uncontrolled feelings that affect behavior.
They are strongly linked to needs, motivation, and persona
Exposure occurs when a stimulus is placed within a persons relevant
environment and comes within range of their sensory receptor nerves.
Exposure provides the opportunity for attention but in no way guarantees it.
Types of Exposure
Reference Group Influences
Word Of Mouth
Opinion Leaders and Market Mavens
Consumers generally trust the opinions of people (family,
friends, acquaintances) more than marketing
The Household Life Cycle:Middle Age
The middle-aged single category (age 35 to 64)
include never married and divorced with no childrearing responsibilities.
This group represented roughly 14.4 million
households in 2006 which is about 4
Variations in Cultural Values
-the complex whole that includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as members of society
*Culture values give rise to norms and associated sanctions
*Gender Identity versus Gender Roles
*Ascribed versus Achievement Roles
*Traditional versus Modern Gender Orientation
-refers to the traits of femininity (expressive traits) and masculinity (instrumental traits).Ind
Ch.1 Consumer Behavior and Marketing Strategy
*Consumer behavior is the study of individuals,groups,or organizations and the processes they use to select,secure,use,and dispose of products,services,experiences,or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts tha
Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Communication
-The meaning of time varies between cultures in two major ways:
-Time perspective:the culture's overall ori
Changes in American Cultural Values
*Cultural values are widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable
*Observable shifts in behavior,including consumption behavior,often reflect underlying shifts in cultural values
*It is necessary to understand the
*America is basically a secular society. That is, the educational system,
government, and political process are not controlled by a religious group,
and most peoples daily behaviors are not guided by strict religious
The Nature of Subcultures
*The Nature of Subcultures
-America has traditionally been viewed as a melting pot
- Immigrants from various countries coming to America quickly surrendered their
old languages, values, behaviors, and even religions
-In their pla
-one's position relative to others on one or more dimensions valued by society,also referred to as social class and social standing
*Social Class System
-hierarchical division of a society into relatively distinct and ho
Understanding American Generations
*A generation or age cohort is a group of persons who have experienced a common social,political,historical,and economic environment
-process of describing and explaining the attitudes,values,and behavio
Diffusion of Innovations
The diffusion process is the manner in which innovations spread
throughout a market.
Form most innovations, the diffusion process appears to follow a
similar pattern over time:
a period of relatively slow growth
The Household Life Cycle:Older Age
There are more than 16 million older singles in
the U.S., and this group is growing rapidly.
Roughly 70% of all older singles are female and
roughly 2/3 of all older singles live alone.
Being older, single,