Chapter 3
Central Tendency a single value used to represent the typical score in a set of scores
Three measures of central tendency:
o Mean average; formula: X / N = or (cannot have more than one)
Population: (Greek letter mu)
Sample: or X with a bar ov
Chapter 1-Stats
*will be given formulas *material builds on itself *read the book
Statistics refers to techniques used to summarize data in order to answer questions
o Refers to values that describes value
o Statistic number value =sample
o Defining popul
Chapter 4: standard scores, the normal distribution, and probability
*Test Thursday; MC and small calculations
GIVEN formulas but know what they mean and how to use
Will not give have to calculate mean
KNOW SYMBOLS
Standard score
o a raw score expressed i
hyChapter 8 the independent samples t Test
1st of 2
Hypotheses testing is the SAME
Types of two sample t tests
o Independent (C9)
Each sample is randomly selected from its population
Couple satisfaction take couples as random married women and
men an
Stats Test 2
Descriptive refers to procedures for organizing, summarizing, and describing data; like
graphs and tables
Inferential includes methods for making inferences about a larger group of individuals
(population) on the basis of data actually collec
Chapter 5 sampling and confidence intervals
Types of samples
o Representative sample the proportions of the variable in the population are
accurately reflected in the sample
o *Convenience sample common, but unlikely to be representative
o *Random sample
Correlation Chapter 13
Chapter 13 and 14
The Pearson correlation coefficient
Simple and multiple linear regression
Correlation
o If two variables are correlated, it means that they vary together systematically a
change in one variable is associated with a
Chapter 6-into to hypothesis testing
*Hypothesis testing
o Is the procedure in which data from a sample are used to evaluate a hypothesis
about a population.
Test: pick the right statistical test based on the research design
Assumptions: Check the assum
Chapter 11 repeated measures one-way ANOVA
TEST 5-11 with most on 10 and 11
Is used for
o Repeated measures (over different points in time)
o Within subjects (under different conditions)
o Matched cases (cases similar in some dimension)
Assumptions (paire
50 questions MC BRING CALCULATOR
There are calculations on the test:
Will be given these equations, but know how to work them
Mean of distribution
Mode of distribution
Median of distribution
Z Score
Raw Score from Z Score
Standard Deviation value find Var
PSY 202 Elementary Statistics
Final Exam Study Guide
Compare/Contrast descriptive and inferential statistics.
o Recognize deff.
o I allow us to make inferences on pop
o D organize summarize and describe data
Given a data set, be able to manipulate statist
Chapter 2 -Frequency Distributions and Graphs
*know symbols
Raw Score Distribution of Exam Grades
o No real order
o Hard to see trends, highest score, lowest score
Ranked Distribution of Exam Grades
o In order of highest to lowest
Ungrouped Frequency Dist
Chapter 10 Between subjects one-way ANOVA (similar to independent t test)
EX: worked with 3 types (of pedal arrangement) =3 means what do we do?
*Do ANOVA NOT multiple t test
the independent variable is called the factor
Advantage allows us to test more t
CHI SQUARE
Goodness of fit
o One sample, asking participants to choose a category or are already in a category
o Cooking desserts survey for what desserts are the best choice of 5 pies
sampling 65 students
(N=65)
number of students who picked each pie f
Chapter 15 nonparametric
Parametric
o normal distribution assumption
o Interval or ratio
o Tests specific population parameters
o Assumptions like homogeneity of variance
o Robust in terms of assumption violation
o More power
Nonparametric
o Does not as
Chapter 9 paired samples t test
What you chose is based on research design
o Comparing 2 populations
o Single sample t test know population mean from one population
o Independent and paired working with 2 sample means
Paired samples t test
o The cases sel
Chapter 3 Perception
65 MC Test. Mostly in order of chapters
go back over videos and be able to answer the questions along with them
Basics of perception
o Clouds with imagination can look like a UFO or another object why?
o Looking at the image it projec
Chapter 1: Cognitive Psychology; History, Methods, and Paradigms
*leaves out certain topics need to go back and study *the history of it
Aristotle, Plato, Locke Wundt James Watson
Influences on the study of cognition
Structuralism/Functionalism/Behavioris
Chapter 2 THE BRAIN
The prenatal brain is about 350 grams or of a pound. It is fully grown by the age of 20 and is
1,350 grams or 3 pounds
Structure of the brain
o Pons/ medulla (Hindbrain lower part of brain)
Responsible for the things that keep us aliv
Chapter 5-working memory: forming and using new memory traces
Traditional Approaches To The Study Of Memory
o Atkinson-Shiffrins modal model of memory
rehearsal
Sensory STM
LTM
retrieval
Taking in information visually sensory memory (stored for a short
Chapter 8 visual imagery and spatial cognition
This stuff is not super necessary for the exam
How does visual imagery relate to visual perception?
o Image you form in your head, is that the same as looking at someone?
o Chess players playing blindfolded
Chapter 7 similar to 6
STM into LTM; whats going on in LTM
Organizing knowledge -Organized side
o Closet full of jerseys
o Organizing knowledge
Originally influenced by artificial intelligence studies
Memory in machines were tiny (Johnny 5k)
Artificial
Chapter 13 individual differences in cognition
Ability vs Style
o Style is how you use the abilities
o Two sport players can be different in style but similar in ability
Can be similar and different in either
Individual differences
o Ability is what you
Chapter 14 cognition in cross cultural perspective
Triandis cultural syndromes decides what kind of culture you have
o Tightness moreys of a typical culture has to be; certain things are considered
moral and unmoral standard of morality and if violated co
Chapter 4 attention: deploying cognitive resources
Selective attention
o Outside world is sending a lot of info at us at any giving time trying to make it to
consciousness
o Some of that info will make it to conscience awareness, but some dont and we
are
Chapter 6 retrieving memories from long term storage
Aspects Of Long-Term Memory
o Capacity
1 billion dollars in $100s =practically infinite
o Coding
Starship enterprise Star trek franchise
Millennium falcon Star Wars
Some confuse the two
Can use vis
Chapter 10 thinking and problem solving
Two types of problems
o Well-defined clear starting point, clear goal and operations. You know ahead of
time what info is available, you have some way of knowing that you actually
solved the problem and you know how
Final will have 70?s but still be out of 65
Chapter 11 reasoning and decision making
REASONING
o Reasoning
Keep calm Im going to Europe
Takes info and adds to it inferences
Given information and use that to make inferences about
information you werent
weChapter 9 Language
The structure of language
o Phonemes units of sounds that have meaning in a language
Take all phonemes together and form words
Phonology dealing with auditory information
Disney mouth chart
Rules for combining phonemes (combining
Chapter 12 cognitive development through adolescence
Piagetian theory
o General principles
Assimilation fitting into an existing schema
Bambi looking around and learning how to say birds calls
butterfly a bird because all things flying are birds
Taking