To produce two genetically identical daughter cells, the DNA in each chromosome must be replicated and the replicated chromosomes must be segregated into the two daughter cells. Finally, most cells must also duplicate their organelles an
Energy Generation in Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
Electron Transport System
Multistep process Almost all e
DNA Replication, Repair, and Recombination
Review cellular mechanisms of DNA replication and repair. DNA recombination and the movement of transposable elements
All organisms must duplicate their DNA with extraordinary accuracy before eac
Reviewing Cell Structure and Organelles
Chapter 1 Key Concepts
Cells are the fundamental unit of life. All cells grow and convert energy from one form to another. All cells contain DNA and use it to guide protein synthesis. Cells in multi
Cells communicate all of the time. Whether we are talking about unicellular organisms like yeast, or cells of a multicellular organism like yourself, individual cells send and receive a multitude of signals. A cell may
C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O
Aerobic respiration occurs in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane.
Aerobic respiration is compartmentalized into the mitochondria.
Preparing for TCA Cycle
DNA and Chromosomes Chapter 5
Life depends on genetic instructions from a mother cell to daughter cell to be stable, retrievable and useful. Beginning of 20th Century, Genetics emerged as a field of study and began to addre
From DNA to Protein: How cells read the genome. Presentation01
Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
Transcription is the beginning of the process by which cells express their genetic information their genes.
Each gene can be transc
How is the information in a linear sequence of nucleotides in RNA translated into the linear sequence of a chemically-different set of subunits the amino acids in a protein?
The rules by which the nucleotide sequence of a gene, through
Protein Structure and Function
Protein structure is based on the amino acid sequence. -polypeptide backbone based on peptide bonds between individual amino acids -reactive side chains off the backbone create the function
Noncovalent bonds stabilize
Chloroplasts and Sunlight
• All organic matter is produced by
• Photosynthesis is a series of light-driven
reactions that use atmospheric carbon dioxide
as the carbon source, electrons from water and
the energy from sunlight to create sug